Особливості трактування природно-правових ідей у творчості просвітників (Вольтер, Ж-Ж. Руссо, Ш.-Л. Монтеск’є)

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Видавництво Львівської політехніки


Розглядаються юснатуралістичні ідеї у творчості видатних діячів епохи Просвітництва Вольтера, Ж.-Ж. Руссо та Ш.-Л. Монтеск’є. Всебічно проаналізовано їхні філософські доктрини в галузі природного права. Розкрито раціоналістичне підґрунтя цього феномену в інтерпретації просвітників. The paper analyses the philosophical doctrines in the field of natural law. The author reveals the rationalistic basis of this phenomenon in the interpretation of the representatives of the age of Enlightenment. Considering the society and the state as a natural “kingdom of reason”, a French philosopher Voltaire seeks for moral regulators of human behavior. In spite of the convictions of the church and theologians about the transcendental origin of morality, Voltaire emphasizes its natural character believing that natural laws exist in the human souls in the form of some moral principles. Morality is inherent to all human beings at all times and in every place. Its unity is determined by the identity of vital needs and psychophysical traits of people. Consequently, equal relationships evolve requiring moral and legal regulations that can be interpreted as natural rights. J. J. Rousseau, like other representatives of the natural law school, believes that all people are equal in the natural state. One can hardly notice those differences between people that are of great importance in a civilised society. They are physical strength, dexterity, beauty, courage and mental abilities. Difficult life situations and a constant struggle against various dangers strengthen a person’s body and soul making him/her courageous. Living conditions of people are different. Our environment, upbringing and social status are very important. This affiliation status determines a person’s occupation and the development of his/her abilities. In the natural state people’s lives are monotonous that’s why mental and physical differences between them can be insignificant. According to J.J. Rousseau, the natural state excludes domination, violence and oppression. C. L. de Montesquieu looks for the sources of social life in the human nature. Supporting the ideas of the theorists of natural law (Grotius and Spinoza, Locke and Hobbes), a French philosopher is convinced that in their original natural state people didn’t have the state (society) and realised the need for it only later. He disagrees with those supporters of natural law who consider the primitive life as a universal hostility and extermination of people. In his opinion, the natural state involves friendship, cooperation and peace.



природне право, розум, Вольтер, Ж.-Ж. Руссо, Ш. Л. Монтеск’є, рівність, natural law, mind, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Charles-Louis de Montesquieu, equality


Хвойницька Х. Особливості трактування природно-правових ідей у творчості просвітників (Вольтер, Ж-Ж. Руссо, Ш.-Л. Монтеск’є) / Христина Хвойницька // Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". – 2014. – № 780 : Філософські науки. – С. 58–62. – Бібліографія: 18 назв.