Historical And Cultural Studies. – 2014. – Vol. 1, No. 1

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Науковий журнал

Historical and Cultural Studies = Історико-культурні студії : [науковий журнал] / Lviv Polytechnic National University ; [editor-in-chief S. Pavlyuk]. – Lviv : Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2014. – Volume 1, number 1. – 112 p. : ill.


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    Зміст до "Historical and Cultural Studies" Volume 1, number 1
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014)
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    Збереження та популяризація історичної пам’яті про діяльність Української армії 1917–1921 рр. (на прикладі військового формування Січових стрільців)
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Хома, І. Я.
    Розкрито формування та збереження пам’яті про військове формування Січових стрільців його ж засновниками та діячами. Зазначено, що фіксування, узагальнення та аналіз інформації про діяльність стрільців розпочалось ще в роки активної збройної боротьби. Загалом у міжвоєнний та повоєнний час над пам’яттю про це військове формування працювало десятки людей, які майже всі належали до цієї сили. This article deals with the formation and preservation of memories about Sich Riflemen military force by its founders and leaders. It is noted that the recording, compilation and analysis of information about activities of riflemen began in the years of active armed warfare. This also concerns the publication of these works. These sources contain enough accurate information about the Sich Riflemen and the events that took place during the Ukrainian National Revolution of 1917–1919. The authors of these papers actually outlined a scheme for further attempts of collecting, recording and analyzing the memories of the Sich Riflemen. In general, during the inter-war and post-war period, over dozens of people processed the memories of this military formation and almost all of them belonged to that force. Special attention is paid to the organization of the extensive research writing – Almanac, led by I. Rudnytskyy. Also the former infantry commanders participated in the work. The further reissues of the Almanac and its amendments are examined. During 1920–1930’s the former riflemen have written dozens of articles that had been published in the “Chervona Kalyna” calendar, “Chervona Kalyna” chronicle, literary and scientific journal and other publications. Most of the works belong to O. Dumin, the member of the Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the Sich Riflemen. The collection of one the Sich Riflemen’s leader – Y. Chyzh (1894–1958) serves as a good example of preserving the memories in the documents and materials. On February, 1st 1955 under the will he gave it to Archives Society of Taras Shevchenko’s ownership, which is stored in the National Library in Warsaw. Yе. Konovalets, the commander of the Sich Riflemen, also contributed to the formation of the memories and by recalling his own memories. Obviously this is the most valuable work, but not from the point of facts but in terms of events assessment.
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    Конвенції ЮНЕСКО як базова складова національної системи правового регулювання пам’яткоохоронної діяльності: понятійно-термінологічний аспект
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Уська, У. Р.
    На основі порівняння норм конвенцій ЮНЕСКО, які ратифікувала Україна, та національного законодавства проаналізовано особливості застосування базових понять пам’яткоохоронної сфери у конвенціях ЮНЕСКО та національному законодавстві, здійснено спробу встановити їхню ієрархію, запропоновано способи подолання розбіжностей під час використання існуючого понятійно-термінологічного апарату. On the basis of analysis of conventions of UNESCO and Ukrainian legislation in the article the comparative analysis of features of application of base concepts of maintenance of monuments is carried out in an international law and national legislation, their hierarchy is set, the methods of overcoming of divergences are offered at the use of existent conceptterminological vehicle. In the legislation of Ukraine essence of most concepts and terms is almost identically represented in the field of maintenance of monuments. An unique term “pamiatka”, that has miscellaneous interpretation national legislation, is however used. His use requires an additional scientific ground and concordance in the environment of specialists of maintenance of monuments business. Under a term “pamiatka” the author of the article understands cultural values, as objects of material and spiritual cultural heritage, that have an artistic, historical, ethnographic, scientific and aesthetic value and subject to maintenance, recreation and guard in accordance with legislation. Analyzing the features of application of base concepts of maintenance of monuments absence strikes the eyes in the national legislation of concept “object of non-material cultural heritage”, that does impossible development of mechanism of maintenance, recreation and defense of spiritual culture. Similar is a situation with a concept “values of natural inheritance”, but, having regard to more perfect state of national legislation in the field of maintenance of nature, it is possible to assert that such objects are under cover of the state. Undoubtedly, the Ukrainian legislation in relation to maintenance of cultural values needs sound perfection, that must take place on the basis of cooperation of specialists on maintenance of monuments, legislators, representatives of public authorities and public.
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    Історична пам’ять у контексті філософорелігійних ідей і “музеєзація” буття: методологічні спостереження
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Тіменик, З. І.
    На підставі спадщини українських філософів 30-х років ХІХ – 50-х років ХХ ст. уперше розкрито особливості контактувань складових елементів назви статті під час аналізу ідеї Бога і системи Його наймень у зв’язках з ідеєю істинності й повноти (між)релігійних комунікацій**. Утверджено тезу про неминучу гармонізацію раціонального та ірраціонального, якщо настають сприятливі історичні обставини. У комплексі названих процесів осмислюється “музеєзація” буття. As based on the legacy of Ukrainian philosophers of 1830s–1950s specific features of interaction between aforesaid elements of the title during analysis of the idea of God and the system of His names in relation to the idea of truth and completeness of (inter)religious communications have been discussed for the first time. The system of such interactions results from particular properties of tempo-rhythmical manifestations in (inter)religious communications and interdisciplinary space. Harmony of the complex of processes arises with complementary participation of a number of ratios and models as well as the use of certain principles (gradual perception of a different religious doctrine, integrity, independent development and spiritual changes, unity, invariance etc). A certain harmonization of analytical and synthetic thinking at different stages of historical development of religious systems is affirmed, at least starting from pantheistic beliefs when an act of philosophical and historical cognition was stipulated by an act of faith. Philosophic and religious occurs at the intersection of elements of moral philosophy, metaphysics and “divine dialectics”. Moreover, due to a simultaneous complex manifestation of several processes such an intersection acquires a natural interdependence, interconnection and thus – regularity. The idea of inevitable harmonization of rational and irrational under favourable historical circumstances is implicitly asserted. In such instance the truth and the moral are interconditioned by the native divine state regardless of religious affiliation. The concept “native image of God” has no single interpretation in various contexts, instead the concept of “native and national” becomes an absolute.
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    Археологічні матеріали Ярослава Пастернака у музейних колекціях
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Терський, С. В.; Омельчук, Б. А.
    Проаналізовано історію археологічних знахідок, здобутих дослідженнями відомого українського археолога Ярослава Пастернака, насамперед під час розкопок у княжих столицях Галичі, Звенигороді, Теребовлі, Белзі, Пліснеську. Обґрунтовано висновки про важливу роль цих матеріалів на початковому етапі формування археологічних фондових колекцій великих музеїв Львова. This article analyzes the fate of archaeological findings obtained in research famous Ukrainian archaeologist Jaroslav Pasternak, especially during excavations in the princely capitals of Galicia, Zvenigorod, Terebovlia, Belz, Plisnesk. Scientists do not have time to properly organize and explore gathered during the excavation finds. Full reports on the excavations J. Pasternak been published (perhaps they are part of the collection at Harvard University, USA). The main beneficiaries of the findings of field expeditions J. Pasternak were Ukrainian National Museum in Lviv Museum of Taras Shevchenko Scientific Society. From the first museum J. Pasternak worked since 1913, he was director of another for 1929– 1939 biennium As a teacher of the Theological Academy in Lviv, some of their findings J. Pasternak also kept in the museum of the institution. 1940 most of the archaeological collections of J. Pasternak was in the collections of the Lviv History Museum. Due to large volumes of work with a lot of new replenishment on time were not taken into account, and as a result, lost to science. For example, only in 1942 was accounted most of the collection from the excavations of 1940 Plisnesk (including ceramics). For a bulk sample collection was usual inventory of archaeological finds. Thus, in the main book revenues fell primarily NTSh museum called individual findings – tools, ornaments, etc. Attention is drawn to the almost complete absence of pottery among then finds from excavations Krylos. The majority of the finds of excavations in Krylos J. Pasternak (1934– 1940 years) had been registered only in 1945. This is evident also in case of collections of other attractions Middle Ages studied J. Pasternak – Belz, Zvenigorod, multitude and others. The reason for this could be lack of funds to pay for the required number of workers. Big massive collection of artefacts may cumulatively recorded in the book supporting the museum NTSh. Objects from the collections of J. Pasternak’s 1944 hit list exported to Germany. Substantiated opinion on the important role of these materials in the initial stage of formation of the archaeological collections of major museums stock of the city.
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    Композиційні властивості малих залізничних вокзалів Галичини ХІХ – початку ХХ століть
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Рочняк, Ю. А.
    Виявлено головні композиційні ознаки низки малих залізничних вокзалів ХІХ – поч. ХХ-го століть сучасної Галичини, сформульовані стилістичні типи, розташування в краю. Small railway station buildings of modern Galicia (Halytchyna) built in 19th – at the beginning of 20th century and located within the boundaries of Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of Ukraine comprise the majority of the existing railway station buildings. They have a pronounced composition and style, and form an important heritage of civil architecture, requiring deep research, protection and adaption to the needs of nowadays. We found out common features in the location of railway stations with respect to tracks, organization of the adjacent territory of these buildings, as well as dominant transversal and prevailing longitudinal symmetry of these buildings. The paper outlines main compositional and stylistic types of small railway station buildings: Round-arc type (stations Stare Selo, Kolomyia, Zabolotiv), Rustic-roof type (stations Sykhiv, Mykulytchyn, Vorokhta, Hrebeniv, Tukhla, Yasenytsia, Turka, Kopytchyntsi, Terebovlia, Zhydatchiv, Rohatyn etc.), Podillia type (stations Vyhnanka, Bila-Tchortkivska, Yahilnytsia, Tovste, Borshtchiv, Ivane-Puste), Sambir type (stations Komarno, Rudky, Staryi Sambir, Strilky), Mostyska type (stations Mshana, Sudova Vyshnia, Mostyska-I, Khyriv), Rava type (stations Kulykiv, Zashkiv, Hlynske, Dobrosyn), Pavilion-like type (stations Bovshiv, Bortnyky). Location of these types by the name of the locality or direction of tracks makes them especially important from the point of view of the identity of regions. Attention is paid to the scattering of Rustic-roof type and peculiar penetration of Round-arc (stations Luzhany, Hlyboka-Bukovynska, Vadul-Siret, Sutchava/Suceava Nord) and Podillia types (stations Vyzhnytsia/Wiżnitz, Stefaneshty/Stefaneşti) in Bucovina (Bukovyna). Initially build in the form of a dwelling house, small railway station buildings evolved into an independent architectural type and are similar to analogous buildings of Danube Monarchy and other countries of the Central Europe. A part of the objects is in bad condition, some of them have been drastically degrading recently (stations Hlibovytchi, Dilatyn, Tatariv). Their protection is not possible without professional reasoning, public activity, and political will.
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    Замок у Вишнівці: історія виникнення, становлення та локалізації
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Підставка, Р. В.
    Проведено історіографічний аналіз стосовно дослідження замку у містечку Вишнівець Тернопільської області. На основі документальних джерел узагальнено інформацію про виникнення, трансформацію та локалізацію оборонних споруд Вишнівця. Запропоновано гіпотезу стосовно основних історичних періодів розвитку оборонної фортифікації вказаного містечка протягом ХV–ХVІІ ст. The National Reserve “Zamky Ternopilia” 11 ‘includes castles in six districts of Ternopil region. This number includes the relic history and culture of national importance – the palace and park complex in the village VyshnivetsZbarazh district, Ternopil region. Analyzed articles historiography materials relating exclusively to Vyshnivets castle palace, built in the middle of the XVIII century on the site of the old castle. We tasked to explore the history of the origin, development, modernization and the decline of the castle during the XV–VII centuries. Set the founders and owners of the castle and their contribution to its development. By this time, there is a discussion regarding the first record of the town Vyshnivets and its founder. Addressing this issue will help to answer a very important question – the actual time of the founding of the city, known from documents (as comprehensive archaeological investigations were not carried out). In the article the historiography analysis regarding research Vyshnivets castle in the town of Ternopil region. Based on documentary sources summarized information about the origin transformation and localization defensive structures Vyshnivets. Studied and systematized volume cartographic material concerning Southeast Volynia in general and in particular neighborhoods and Vyshnivets. Shows the number of the latest historiographical papers and articles which denies the possibility of establishing a settlement VyshnivetsKorybut (Dymitr) – son of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas and causes of tribal legends. These studies push back the first written mention of the end of the XIV century – until the middle of the fifteenth century. The hypothesis regarding major historical periods of military fortifications specified within the town XV–XVII centuries.
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    Військово-історичні пам’ятки у збірках музеїв Львова першої половини XX ст.
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Петрик, Н. Р.
    Досліджено нагромадження військово-історичних пам’яток у львівських музейних колекціях кінця XIX – першої половини XX ст., а також процес створення спеціалізованих військово-історичних музеїв. Розкрито внесок у музейне будівництво громадських та культурних інституцій та окремих діячів. An accumulation of military and historical attractions in a museum collections of Lviv from the end of XIX until the first half of the XX century and a process of creating military and historical museums has been investigated in this article. A contribution of the public and cultural institutions and any public and scientific figures in the museum construction has been revealed. The national factor was one of the most important in a public life of Lviv at that time. Polish and Ukrainian communities strived to create their own independent states. Their desires were represented in a museum construction. The main figure in this process was Alexander Cholovscy. National Museum of King Jan III was the top museum institution of Polish community in Lviv. This Museum had one of the largest collection of military historical attractions. Besides, there were large military and historical collections from a Museum of the Princes Lubomyrski and Boleslaw Ozhehovych collection. All these museum institutions and collections belongs to the Polish cultural society. The main museum of Ukrainian community was the Museum of Shevchenko Scientific Society. Collection of the military and historical attractions of this Museum began to take shape at the end of XIX century. Subsequently military and historical attractions were united into a single department. And in 1937 the Museum of military and historical attractions of Shevchenko Scientific Society or Museum Liberation Straggle was created from this department. It was the first historical museum of Ukrainian community in Lviv, which specialized on military. During the World War II collections of Lviv museums had suffered losses. A large part of the military and historical collections were destroyed; another one was moved abroad. Lviv museums were reorganized. That’s why, in 1940 all military and historical attractions, that were saved, have been focused in the new Lviv Historical Museum. Nowadays collections of Lviv museums from the first half of the XX century are the most important sources for learning the military history in Western Ukraine.
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    Класифікація пам’яток як один з перших кроків у їх дослідженні (на прикладі половецьких статуй)
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Підкович, А. Я.
    Порушено проблему дослідження масових пам’яток та проблематичності їх класифікації. Розглянуто на прикладі різних класифікацій половецької скульптури, як одночасно існували та продовжують існувати різні класифікації не заперечуючи одна одну. Вказано на основні концептуальні підходи існуючих класифікацій та виявлено такі їх якості, як взаємодоповнювальність і персоніфікованість. One of the main museum activities at the level of exposition and educative function there are their research component. Important role in the study of any of numerous monuments are their classification and typological analysis. In this article we have tried to illustrate the different classifications Polovets sculptures simultaneously existed and continue to exist different classifications and do not exclude each other. Existing classification Polovets sculptures are subjective, what we have tried to demonstrate. The first attempt to classify stone sculpture Polovets tribes was done by Alexey S. Uvarov in the late 19th century. Autor has selected next types of sculpture: standing, sitting, half-sitting and such as stella. Evolution of these sculptures Uvarov has seen as a development from the stella to roughly treated and well detailed sculpted figures. The following classification appeared only in the second half of the 20th century. Herman A. Fedorov-Davydov had used for his classification just two iconographic features: posture and sex. He divided poses of sculpture into three types: standing, sitting, stella. Evolution of stone sculpture in the Eastern plains Fedorov-Davydov represented as the evolution of standing figures, followed by the simultaneous evolution and coexistence of stella and sitting figures. Svetlana A. Pletneva taking into account the classification Fedorov-Davidova has created its own – more detailed, but less accessible. In turn, her and previous classifications was subjected to serious analysis and critique of Lyubov S. Geraskova. As for chronological dating, researchers usually try to tie it to their classifications but indicate that we need consider all available information. After analyzing the existing classifications, we concluded that different classification can be supplementing nature and do not claim to be exhaustive. This is due to the complexity analysis of mass sources.
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    Формування історичної спадщини парамілітарного руху у Галичині (наприкінці XIX – на початку XX ст.)
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Нагірняк, А. Я.
    Висвітлені основні здобутки формування української історичної спадщини з проблеми еволюції парамілітарних рухів Галичини кінця ХІХ – початку ХХ ст. в українські військові з’єднання. The paper highlights the main achievements of Ukrainian historiographical heritage from the point of view of the evolution of Galicia paramilitary movements of the late XIX – early XX century, the Ukrainian military units. The article highlights and analyzes the main stages of the study: 1) works of researchers of the interwar period in Western Ukraine and the diaspora historians, who laid the conceptual foundations of informative study of the entire Ukrainian national movement and political history and the history of Cossack riflemen paramilitary companies in particular; 2) The work of historians of the Soviet period; 3) The studies of Ukrainian historians who appeared in the late 80’s – early 90’s of XX century during the collapse of the Soviet Union when the history of paramilitary organizations was treated as a “white spot” and in terms of the existing Soviet system was forbidden to write about; 4) The works of historians of the period of independent Ukrainian were based on democratic methodological principles. Particular attention is drawn to the memorable leaflets, which were published in Western Ukraine, Canada and the U.S., which form two groups of works of civil and political activists ZUNR. Of the greatest importance to historians is the work of ZUNR leader K. Levytskyi who investigated the problems of national revival in the late XIX – early XX century and activities of socio-political organizations and paramilitary associations. The importance of the historical-journalistic publications, which mainly took the form of leaflet memories in the 20’s of the twentieth century was also emphasized. The role of contemporary Ukrainian newspapers, including significant place, which is occupied by the military – historical illustrated magazine “Chervona Kalyna Chronicles”, which came out in Lviv in 1929–1939 s. A lot of leaflet memories and biographies of participants liberation struggle 1914–1923 were published there.
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    Теоретичні думки В. Петріва щодо впорядкування й експонування документів та експонатів в Українському музеї-архіві при Інституті громадознавства в Празі
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Мельник, Р. П.; Мельник, В. М.
    Розглянуто теоретичні основи відомого військового діяча, генерал-хорунжого В. Петріва щодо впорядкування і експонування документів та експонатів в Українському музеї-архіві при Інституті громадознавства в Празі. The analysis of these sources and professional literature in the article attempts to highlight the theoretical views of the famous military leader, General cornet V. Petriw, plan on ordering and exhibiting documents and exhibits in the National Museum Archives at Hromadoznavstva Institute in Prague. Particular attention is focused on the problem of preserving the achievements of Ukrainian history and culture in exile. Thus, in Prague in 1923, the Institute was Hromadoznavstva shutter National Museum archive to preserve and protection of monuments of great historical value. In the operation of the museum’s archive, the urgent question was making clear structure methods for collecting and organizing documents and museum exhibits. To address this issue, on the initiative of the Director Museum Archives M. Galan, a commission was established, composed of V. Petriw entered. In the theoretical work, the military identified the main task of the main Ukrainian National Museum Archives, which was to organize the collection and storage of Ukrainian historical monuments abroad and completing his documentary collections, V. Petriw in his theoretical development plan submitted organize and exhibiting historical materials. The basis of the grouping of the collected sites, it is proposed to employ chronologically problematic principle that all accumulation of materials on the history of the national revolution of 1917–1921 had to be grouped according to time and their accessories. Another important area of work in the protection of the past defined the theoretical description and comparison of the accumulated separately and distributed material, the final step is to display in the museum.
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    Історико-культурна спадщина України у цивілізаційному діалозі
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Матлай, Л. С.
    Уточнено понятійно-категоріальний апарат із проблематики дослідження. Проаналізовано історичні аспекти становлення європейської цивілізації та культурної спадщини. Досліджено роль культурної дипломатії у вираженні національної ідентичності. Підкреслено важливість постійного та взаємного діалогу національних культур для політичного, економічного та культурного зближення народів Європи та світу. Розглянуто діяльність України щодо оновлення Списку світової спадщини ЮНЕСКО. The article clarifies the conceptual apparatus of the study. The historical aspects of the formation of European civilization and cultural heritage have been analyzed. The role of cultural diplomacy in terms of national identity has been described. The importance of continuous dialogue and mutual national culture for the political, economic and cultural rapprochement between the peoples of Europe and the world were emphasized. The activity of Ukraine by updating the List of World historical and cultural heritage was examined. Definition of “the cultural heritage” makes it an article 1 of Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972 р.): monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. Ukraine is inseparable part of European civilization with its past, as well as with its present, by assuming its commitment to establishment of democracy. Ukraine has a rich historical and cultural heritage. Cultural heritage was created by past generations material and spiritual values that are a part of the national wealth that is important for the preservation and development of the identity of nation.In the List of world historical and cultural heritage of United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 12 December 1990 were included two well -known attractions - Kiev: Saint-Sophia Cathedral with an ensemble of the monastery buildings and the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Today in the List of UNESCO are Sophia Cathedral complex of monastic buildings; Kiev-Pechersk Lavra; L’viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre; the Residence of the metropolitans of Bukovina and Dalmatia (Chernivtsi); cross-border facility - Struve Geodetic Arc, passing through the territory of 10 European countries. In Ukraine nowadays made additional proposals prior to the World Heritage List, including: Bakhchisaray Khan palace, reserve “Askaniya Nova” and “Chersonese Tavriyskyy”; cultural landscape and canyon in Kamenetz- Podilskyj, the historical center of Chernihova, park “Sofiyivka”; Taras Shevchenko Tomb and State Historical and Natural Museum – Reserve. The Lviv Region, which ranks second, out of 24 regions in Ukraine, in terms of the quantity of heritage sites on its territory. The Lviv Region boasts 8,441 cultural sights, including 816 sites of national significance. Today, the state has to preserve Ukrainian identity through culture, to form and consolidate a civil nation, to retain Ukrainian cultural diversity, to develop Ukrainian cultural industries and to promote Ukraine in the wider world.
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    Шляхетський герб на чоловічому портреті в колекції Львівського історичного музею
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Лисейко, Я. Б.
    На прикладі зображень шляхетських гербів на портретах із колекції Львівського історичного музею показано особливості герботворення та шляхетської геральдики у XVII – початку XX ст. There are 43 noble portraits with the coat of arms of 17th – the beginning of 20th century in Lviv Historical Museum’s collection. The images of noble emblems at the portraits were motivated by the desire to show a person’s belonging to a particular armorial or family community. An appeal to the history of its family wasn’t random, as the nobleman thus emphasized that by his activities he contributed to the enhancement of the glory and prestige of his ancestors. Typically only wealthy nobles, magnates, and those who were involved in military area or at the public services were pictured at the portraits. The analyzed material complex made it possible to distinguish certain features of noble coat of arms image at the portrait. Usually the armorial shield doesn’t have clear shapes but has stylized floral or other designs, which is a manifestation of Baroque art. Despite the fact that coats of arms tradition of the 17th century has already been established, a number of coats of arms shown at the noble portraits of Lviv Historical Museum’s collection have its own features. In the coat of arms there were frequently used initials that symbolized not only the name of the emblem’s carrier, but also the government positions, titles and proprietary names owned by that person. It was the social capital that should be demonstrated to others in order to emphasize on their social status. This once again confirms the fact that in the Commonwealth where the idea of noble equality was formally proclaimed and promoted, the titles of nobility, with the few exceptions, and the possession of a government post was the sign of prestige or the way to stand out from the nobility overall. In some cases, the artists tried to add certain signs to the coat of arms that could highlight the occupation of emblem’s owner. If the person was involved in military affairs – the artist could add to the emblem some military attributes, and when the person served in the Church it could be reflected by adding symbols that clearly point out the nature of person’s activities. These special features primarily were designed to emphasize the individual traits and achievements of the coat of arms’ owner.
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    In search for cultural heritage authenticity definition: history and current issues
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Kulevičius, Salvijus
    Аутентичность – один из фундаментальных элементов культурного наследия, показывающих или призванных показать, что культурное наследие является несомненно подлинным, что оно может репрезентировать “истинное” прошлое, воплотить “достоверные” факты и т.п. В европейской концепции охраны культурного наследия представлены две противоположные парадигмы аутентичности: исторической материи и исторического образа. Они по-разному трактуют сущность аутентичности культурного наследия (первая парадигма воплощает ее в исторической материи, уникальной и не подлежащей воссозданию; вторая – в историческом образе, который может быть реконструирован) и обращения с ним (первая парадигма предполагает в идеале консервацию объектов; для второй являются приемлемыми и восстановление, метод аналогий и т.п.). В настоящее время официальной считается парадигма исторической материи, хотя на практике очень распространена и парадигма исторического образа. До последнего десятилетия XX века наибольшее влияние на международную политику в сфере охраны культурного наследия также оказывала парадигма исторической материи, которую стремятся закрепить в качестве универсальной концепции. Примечательно, что на практике существовало большое количество концепций аутентичности, не нашедших отражения в навязываемой концепции. Конфликт между желаемым и применяемым завершился отказом от универсалистской парадигмы и ее заменой релятивистской концепцией охраны культурного наследия, существенным принципом которой является признание того, что существует не одна точка зрения в вопросах охраны культурного наследия, а много точек зрения, в равной мере правомерных и положительных. В статье представлен анализ истоков, контекста и последствий данного конфликта, а также развития и тенденций понимания аутентичности культурного наследия. The European Tradition: Two Paradigms.
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    До питання вивчення музейних збірок гутного скла
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Курдина, Ю. М.
    Звернено увагу на збірку скляних речей, яка виявлена у Підгірцях та зберігається у Історико-краєзнавчому музеї м. Винник, а також на гутні вироби з Історико-краєзнавчого музею м. Володимир-Волинського. Подано опис скляних речей, на основі чого прокласифіковано гутні вироби. Real monuments found during archaeological research, do not often get adequate coverage in the scientific literature. Usually this is due to the priority research areas. The researchers usually refer to their findings only while enumerating the material, and focus their attention on other aspects. This situation is typical for blown products. Therefore, there is a necessary task of studying blown glass complexes located in the museums which were not the subject of a separate research study. Special attention in the article is focused on the collection of glass wares, which was found in Pidhirtsi and is stored in the Historical Museum of Wynnyky, and blown glass products from the Historical Museum of Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Findings from Pidhirtsi were found during excavations on the territory of Pidhirci Monastery of St. Basil the Great while Volodymyr-Volynskyi glass comes from surveys as well as from chance finds in the city and its environs. Glass products in the above mentioned museums are various bottles, glasses, pharmacy utensils, etc. Based on additional literature, the study of museum collections allows a provisional classification of blown products on the functional-typological principle: vessels for storing liquids and bulk materials, vessels for drinking, pharmacy utensils; window glass; figured glass; other glass products. Continued study of similar museum collections will allow this classification to be concretized. At the same time, specifying the number, the parameters and the shape of glass products, their finishes and finding similarities will allow to determine the level of blown glass industry development in general and blown glass craftsmanship in particular.
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    Обґрунтування узагальненого предмета діяльності для спеціальності “Музейна справа та охорона пам’яток історії та культури”
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Дуцяк, І. З.
    Проаналізовано предмет діяльності спеціальностей “музейна справа” та “охорона пам’яток історії та культури”. Виявлено спільні та відмінні компоненти предметів діяльності цих галузей. Обґрунтовано два синонімійні варіанти формулювання узагальненого предмета діяльності для спеціальності “музейна справа та охорона пам’яток історії та культури”. Subjects of activity of specialities “museology” and “cultural heritage” are analysed. The common and distinctive components of subjects of activity of these branches are revealed and two synonymous formulations of the generalised subject of activity for a speciality “museology and cultural heritage” is proved. Arguments concerning an incorrectness of generalisation of concepts “a museum subject” and “object of a cultural heritage” with terms “cultural property” or “cultural heritage” are presented. The content of concept “Museum object” is proved also. The content of this concept should cover following attributes: placed and considered in a museum unique inanimate (artificial or natural) objects, the perception of which can satisfy the senses cognitive, educational and aesthetic needs of the general public.
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    До проблеми віктимного характеру Голодомору 1932–1933 років в історичній пам’яті українського народу
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Гнатюк, В. М.
    Розглянуто специфіку образу Голодомору 1932–1933 років у історичній пам’яті українського народу. Стверджується, що цей образ є переважно віктимним, що зумовлено особливостями дотеперішнього дискурсу у вітчизняній науковій і публіцистичній літературі та в суспільстві загалом. Такий стан речей автор вважає небезпечним для розвитку української нації та держави, оскільки віктимність є демотиваційним чинником, породжує фаталізм, пасивність, зневіру. Автор наголошує на потребі корегувати цей образ Голодомору в історичній пам’яті, шукати певний позитив, який нейтралізував би віктимність і мотивував би українців на впевненість у собі, віру в свої сили. Такі позитивні моменти автор вбачає у фактах героїчного опору комуністичній владі, а також у фактах альтруїзму, жертовності заради порятунку інших, у прагненні побудувати в Україні демократичне суспільство загального добробуту. In the article the specification of the image of the Holodomor in the historical memory of the Ukrainian people is concerned. The conclusion is drawn, that this image has mostly victim character. It happened because a lot of people were exterminated during a very shot period and nobody was accused for that crime. The modern discourse of Ukrainian scientists stimulates that feeling because of its concentration on the suffering of victims and negative consequences of the Holodomor for the further history of the Ukrainian people. Thatconsciousness of self as a victimby a big part of Ukrainians during the period of Holodomorand dozens of years after it under the dictatorial communist regime is very dangerous for the mentality of their moderndescendants, because that feeling can bear the negative feelings of passivity and fatality. But it’s not aloud, that the information about the Holodomor could create inside of our contemporaries the feeling of danger, make them afraid of the state power. Now a lot of Ukrainians have these feelings also every fifth Ukrainian is afraid of repeating of the famine.The Ukrainians need the positive feelings of optimism, faith on their own forces, their capability to create a good future for their children. They need a discourse that could create a feeling of dignity. The author tries to find some positive facts in the Holodomor history, that can motivate the modern Ukrainians for building of the welfare society. Those are the facts of heroism of the Ukrainians fighting the communist system during 1929–1933 years, especially the murders of communist activists, the facts of altruism and successful building of high-developed state. It is necessary to form the strong thinking about legitimacy of the state power that kill its people, make them die because of famine. Such a power could be changed without any doubt. Everybody has a right to fight such a regime and to change it.
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    Основні проблемно-тематичні напрями преси Української Галицької армії
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Вовк, Н. С.
    Розглянуто та проаналізовано основні пресові органи Української Галицької армії. Авторка визначає основні проблемно-тематичні напрями військової преси УГА та наводить їх коротку характеристику. The article examines and analyzes the main presses edition of Ukrainian Galician Army including “Strilets” and “Striletskyj Shljah”. The author defines the problem-themed areas of military press UGA and gives their brief description including: battle your way troops, the formation of the Ukrainian army, social and economic developments in Ukraine, international events and Ukraine in their context, developments in the oppressed Ukrainian lands, meet the religious needs of the military, biographical material, and the host government leaders, the cultural life of the state and army. The author also examines the status information content of contemporary periodicals Western Ukrainian People’s Republic. Analyzing the material can form a definite conclusion about the difficult path of creating Ukrainian troops, its problems and mistakes along the way. Besides, author identifies the following problem-themed areas, typical only for military press UGA: coverage in Galicia, a retrospective reflection of events1918 (Battle for Lvov), problems of military specialists and their use Galician Army – advantages of specialists – not Ukrainian service to UGA, preserving the integrity of Galician Army’s unity, which substantiated the need to keep the morale of the troops, the desire to win Galicia.
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    Історичний музей як чинник примирення та суспільного діалогу
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Вербицька, П. В.
    Висвітлено актуальну проблему – з’ясування потенціалу історичного музею у подоланні конфлікту історичної пам’яті, що дестабілізує сучасне українське суспільство та перешкоджає його інтеграції та консолідації. Враховуючи те, що минуле й надалі є предметом політичних маніпуляцій та засобом суспільної дезінтеграції в Україні, суспільне порозуміння та примирення щодо суперечливих і вразливих сторінок історичної пам’яті є важливим завданням історичного музею. Taking into account the fact, that the past continues to be the subject of political manipulations and means of social disintegration, an important task of a historical museum is social understanding and reconciliation regarding the controversial and sensitive pages of historical memory. In the research on historical memory it has been established that manipulation of reminiscences and memory became a most powerful tool in managing of individual and social consciousness. Conflicts of historical memory in a society are always dangerous because they threaten with destabilization, disintegration. The most controversial problems of collective memory of the Ukrainian people and their neighbors relate to history of the XX century, especially the World War II and its manipulations causes a deeper social conflict, destabilizes social situation. Thus, this article is aimed at finding out the potential of a historical museum in overcoming the conflict in historical memory which is a factor of destabilization in modern Ukrainian society interfering with its integration and democratic development. In the basis of modern understanding of a historical museum, researchers formulate a new vision of museum communication aiming at overcoming cultural and historical distance, establishing connections between the past, present and future, which leads to the revision of the museum work’s traditional structure. The museum can not be limited solely to passing scientific knowledge to its visitors. It is also necessary to consider motives and emotional requirements of the audience. By selecting the exhibits, extracting them from their cultural-historical environment, preserving and systematizing them, a museum becomes a specific channel of cultural-historical communication, a carrier of historical memory. The analysis of the controversial and sensitive issues in the process of familiarization with museum exhibition provides the personality with the necessary skills for constructive interaction in society. Accordingly, in modern sociocultural conditions the application of multi-perspective approach is important in the process of shaping the historical exhibition content. The important condition is the usage of multi-perspectivity in a context of a historical exibit, which foresees the consideration of certain historical problem from different points of view. In such conditions a historical exibition can help with providing opportunities for the people to explore the ways of how the past has helped to shape various identities, common cultures, values and to form individual tolerance to diversity. The vision of the museum as a social and cultural institution in modern conditions is complemented by understanding of its active role in social and cultural development of community. Exhibitions and other museum activities can become a tool for better understanding of today’s world and meet the needs of people at present.
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    Українські комбатанти – організатори військово-історичних музеїв
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2014) Бойко, В. П.
    Розкрито роботу над відкриттям військово-історичних музеїв учасникам українських армій Української національної революції 1917–1921 рр. Звернено увагу на організацію збору пам’яток, формування фондів, а також на ті труднощі, з якими зіткнулись ініціатори збереження військової культурно-історичної спадщини. The new environment of the combatants of the Ukrainian Galician Army (UGA) was being formed which after defeat of the liberation war and occupation by Poland of the territory of Eastern Galicia and Volyn became the main bulwark of the Ukrainian liberation cause. It was exactly amongst the former UGA and the UPR Army warriors that the idea of founding in the independent Ukraine of the Museum of liberation struggle as an institution called upon to preserve and pass on to the new generations documentary evidence of the political and military past of the Ukrainian state was conceived and realized. Due to winding up the activities of the UPR government in exile in Poland in the end of 1922 it was resolved to transfer materials of the Central military-historical Museum-Archive of the UPR Army to Czechoslovakia. There was an agreement to establish the Ukrainian national Museum-archive in Prague under the auspices of the Ukrainian public committee. One of the first museums established abroad was the Museum of liberation struggle of Ukraine in Prague. The next museum established abroad by the Ukrainian combatants was a collection in the Royal military museum in Brussels. With the efforts of the society “Moloda Hromada” (“Young Community”) a section of historical-military exhibits was opened in 1936 in the cultural-historical museum of Shevchenko Scientific Society (SSS) in Lviv, whose director was Doctor Yaroslav Pasternak. A separate museum of historical-military memorabilia was established on May 29, 1937 under the auspices of the SSS and Dr. Ivan Karpynets, a combatant and a historian of the UGA, was appointed its director. The museum of the Ukrainian Army under the auspices of the Ukrainian Military-historical institute in Toronto existed under protection of the UPR State Center in exile. Administration of the institute in its declaration announced, that the museum of the Ukrainian Army is property of the Ukrainian Unitary State and would be preserved till the time when it will be possible to transfer it to the independent Ukraine. The museum of the Ukrainian Army in Toronto is the largest center with the collection of valuable historical relics. Carrying out its active work during twenty years aiming at the formation of the museum funds, today this Museum of liberation struggle of Ukraine (temporarily as a branch of Lviv museum of history) has gathered over 10,000 militaryhistorical exhibits, of which up to 20 % have been returned to Ukraine.