Environmental Problems. – 2017. – Vol. 2, No. 1

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    Wastewater treatment by ultraviolet irradiation technique
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Vronska, Nataliya; Malyovanyy, Myroslav; Popovych, Olena; Stokalyuk, Oleh; Lviv Polytechnic National University
    Devoted to the problem of sewage treatment by ultraviolet radiation. This method can clear the water from microbiological contamination and thereby improve water quality.
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    Linear stability analysis for the thermotactic microorganisms in porous media
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Alloui, Zineddine; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; Département du Socle commun des Sciences et Technique, Faculté de Technologie Université El-Hadj-Lakhdar Batna, Algérie; Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Canada
    Thermotaxis or motion in the field of temperature gradient is a very common phenomenon and can be found in many events in nature, from biological ones to the migration of colloidal particles. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic model to describe the collective behavior of a microorganism population with a general form of stimuli gradient-based taxis in porous media. This population has the mass density slightly heavier than the water density and forms a suspension. The suspended cells are actively in motion with a thermotaxis behavior (temperature gradient follower). Based on an Eulerian framework, the model comprises basically the Darcy equation for the fluid motion in porous media, equation of cell conservation for the microorganism population and equation of conservation for the considered stimuli. To take into account the density effects, the Boussinesq’s approximation will be used. Linear stability analysis shows that there are interesting effects of temperature on the bioconvection pattern of the thermotactic microorganisms.
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    Determination of an impact of the composition on the pH level and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in soil of Pustomyty distrаct, Lviv region
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Кanda, Maria; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Оdnorih, Zoryana; Lviv Polytechnic National University
    This research involves studying the application of palygorskite from Dashukivka Deposit and clinoptilolite from Sokyrnytsia Deposit in production of organic fertilizers prolonged. It is found that maximum ammonia sorption capacity is 1.56×10-2 mg-eq/g of sorbents. The composition proposed has a positive impact on condition of the studied soils. The pH level of soil solution shifts toward neutral, and the level of ammonium nitrogen is uniform throughout 24 days.
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    Concurrent sorption of Copper and Chromium cations by natural zeolite
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Sabadash, Vira; Gumnytskyy, Jaroslav; Mylianyk, Oksana; Romaniuk, Liliana; Lviv Polytechnic National University; Ecological Agricultural University College of Lviv
    The aim of this work was to study the process of adsorption of Copper and Chromium cations by natural zeolites in static conditions. The change of the chemical composition of the surface of the zeolite as a result of sorption of heavy metals was investigated. The influence of the type of the ions and pH selectivity in absorption of heavy metals removal by zeolite was analysed. The reasons for the selective extraction of Copper from two-component solution were explained.
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    Utilization of sugar beet pulp by getting activated carbon
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Bordun, Igor; Ptashnyk, Vadym; Sadova, Maria; Chapovska, Roksolana; Lviv Polytechnic National University; Lviv National Agrarian University
    The formation and properties of sugar beet pulp have been analysed in the article. It has been proposed to use it as raw material to produce activated carbon. A better hydrophilicity of the obtained carbon in comparison with the samples of industrial production has been shown. Structural features and a porous structure of carbon made of sugar beet pulp have been analysed by X-ray diffraction and small angle scattering methods. It has been found that pores with average radii of inertia of 3.5 nm make the main contribution to the pore structure.
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    The key aspects of atmospheric air ecological monitoring concept formation at the urban systems level
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Bakharev, Volodymyr; Marenych, Andriy; Kremenchuk Mykhailo Ostrohradsky National University
    The key aspects of atmospheric air ecological monitoring concept formation on the urban system have been analyzed. The principal scheme of concept construction has been proposed. It has been defined that the concept has to be built on the anthropocentric approach. The samples of atmospheric air ecological monitoring unsolved issues on the urban system of the town of Kremenchuk (Ukraine) have been taken to concretize the integral parts of the concept with defining goals, objectives, statistic results and dynamic indicators of the concept implementation.
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    The methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Adamenko, Yaroslav; Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas
    The article deals with the methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities and activities. The stages of evaluation of environmental impacts are proved. The algorithm and technology of decision-making in the system of environmental impact assessments based on a multi-criteria utility theory are proposed.
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    Forecasting automotive waste generation using short data sets: case study of Lithuania
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras; Department of Environmental Technology, Kaunas University of Technology; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Kaunas University of Technology
    There were 1.83 million cars and average passenger car age was 18 years in Lithuania in 2013. Increasing number of cars has an insignificant effect on car age change but it is contrary to automotive waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, that accumulates during vehicle exploitation and after it ends. The aim of this study was to assess different mathematical modelling methods abilities to forecast non-hazardous and hazardous automotive waste generation. Artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines, nonparametric regression and time series methods were used in this research. Results revealed that nearly perfect theoretical results in both cases can be reached by smoothing splines and other nonparametric regression methods. It is very doubtful that results would be so precise using data outside of currently used data set range and due to this reason further testing using 2014–2015 data is needed.
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    The protection of wooden constructing materials and structural elements of buildings against biological damage
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Kryvomaz, Tetyana; Perebynos, Alona; Associate professor of the Department of labour safety and the environment protection; Postgraduste student Kyiv National Construction and Architecture University
    The methods of wooden building materials protection from biological damage were analysed. Constant technical monitoring is the main preventive measure against damage of structural elements of the wooden buildings. The most effective methods from biological damage are chemical treatment, capillary infiltration, diffusion treatment and impregnation under pressure. The essence of action against mycodestructors is to create conditions for the preservation of wood buildings by removing danger factors: moisture more than 20 %, condensation phenomena, sharp fluctuations in temperature, freezing, stagnant air, etс. Effective preventive bioprotection methods are based on the ability of organisms to inhibition or complete growth termination of some species in the presence of the others. It was also found that for the preservation of historical-architectural buildings it is appropriate to apply diffusion method using boron compounds that are able to penetrate into the depth of the construction, while providing maximum protection with minimum interference into materials.
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    The decision of landfill leachate treatment
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017) Huhlych, Serhiy; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Dyachok, Vasil; Lviv Polytechnic National University
    This work is an attempt to analyze the theoretical and practical aspects of landfill leachate treatment and analyze the pros and cons of the most widespread methods leachate treatment and suggest the method of complex purification of high-concentration sewage waters from solid domestic wastes (SDW) for example of Hrybovychi municipal solid domestic waste.
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    Зміст до "Environmental Problems" Volum 2, number 1
    (Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2017)