Environmental Problems. – 2022. – Vol. 7, No. 1

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Науковий журнал

Засновник і видавець Національний університет «Львівська політехніка». Виходить двічі на рік з 2016 року.

Environmental Problems = Екологічні проблеми : [науковий журнал] / Lviv Polytechnic National University ; [editor-in-chief M. Malovanyy]. – Lviv : Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2022. – Volume 7, number 1. – 55 p. : ill.

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    Contents
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01)
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    Application of formalized models of events for evaluation of danger and accident assessment of the compressor station of the main pipeline
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Babadzhanova, Olga; Vasiichuk, Viktor; Charlak, Michał; Lviv State University of Life Safety; Lviv Polytechnic National University; Lublin University of Technology
    An effective approach to solving the problem of reducing man-made hazards is the use of specialized systems for forecasting and minimizing risks. The theoretical basis for hazard assessment is probabilistic safety analysis (IAB). The most common method of assessing the danger and accident is the development of formalized models of events is the use of logical-probabilistic models “failure tree” (FTA) and “event tree” (ETA). These methods are widely used in the world to analyze the risk of accidents at facilities with increased levels of danger. They are used both for the preliminary analysis of safety during the development of recommendations for reducing the level of risk and for investigating the causes of accidents at hazardous facilities. In Ukraine, such methods are used in the development of safety declarations for high-risk facilities. Considering a great number of hazards inherent in the operation of main pipelines, it is important to understand which of these risks are most critical. The specifics of their operation is directly related to the risk of cascading accidents. The purpose of the work is to establish criteria and assess the danger of accidents at the compressor station of the main gas pipeline.
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    The problem of evaluation of individual persistent organic pollutants emissions from road transport (Illustrated by the case of Odessa industrial-and-urban agglomeration)
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Mykhailenko, Vladyslav; Safranov, Tamerlan; Odessa State Environmental University
    One of the main environmental polluters, especially in large cities of Ukraine, is road transport. In particular, road transport is one of the main sources of persistent organic pollutants in the environment. Therefore, monitoring of air pollution by road transport is one of the most relevant questions in Ukraine, especially considering its intentions to join the European Union. Analysis of the regulatory and legislative frameworks of Ukraine shows that, unfortunately, today, there are no regulatory documents that motivate to reduce the load of mobile sources, including road transport, on the environment. Moreover, even though the only methodology for calculating pollutant emissions from mobile sources expired in 2015, no new methodology has been developed yet. This paper calculates the masses of pollutants formed during the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel, and proves the necessity to take into consideration persistent organic pollutants when assessing the toxicity of exhaust fumes, considering their cumulative effect and half-life. The calculation was performed according to European and national (Ukrainian) methodologies, which are supplemented by the calculation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) formation. Using the relative hazard factor, the relative masses of these substances are calculated, the obtained masses of all components of the exhaust fumes are ranked, the contribution of each component to the toxicity of emissions is revealed. Using emission factors, the specific emissions of these persistent organic pollutants during the combustion of diesel fuel, gasoline, liquefied and compressed gases are calculated. By the results, the types of organic fuels with the highest priority for use by mobile sources are identified.
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    Carbon sequestration in the ocean-an escape route
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Onyemachi, David Ibeabuchi; Eze, Wilson Uzochukwu; Musa, Mekidani Aaron; Okolo, Virginia Ngozi; Kalip, Amos Dindul; Paulleo, Pascalina; Igiri, Bernard Egwu; John, Abba; Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology; Nnamdi Azikiwe University; National Space Research and Development Agency
    The utilization of fossil fuels is releasing previously carbon stored in the various carbon pools of the earth and increasing the global concentration of Carbon dioxide from an initial 280 parts per million in the 1850s to above 400 parts per million today. This review takes a look at previous works on carbon sequestration; its feasibility, potential and process. Increased carbon emission has disrupted the fragile balance in carbon content between the atmosphere and ocean which took thousands of years to attain. Aftermath of which includes increase global temperatures as well as other environmental problems. It has been projected that from 2025 up-wards; we would have exceeded our carbon budget at our current emission rates. Curtailing fossil fuel utilization alone will not suffice to save the planet unless something more drastic is done. Capturing anthropogenically produced carbon gas and discharging it into the ocean at a depth of 3000m where it sinks into the bottom of the ocean is recommended. Here, the oceans are expected to store about 59 times the carbon gas carrying capacity of the atmosphere. The need to speed up the slow natural process of sequestrating carbon in the ocean depth has never been more expedient. Research is recommended into understanding the oceans as a variegated system of interactions compared to terrestrial ecosystems.
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    Extraneous diffusion kinetics of ammonium ions adsorption in the presence of other ions
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Sabadash, Vira; Gumnitsky, Jaroslaw; Petrus, Roman; Lviv Polytechnic National University; Pzeszów University of Technology
    The article presents the results of the study of the kinetics of ions adsorption from multi-component mixtures. The isotherms of sorption of ammonium nitrogen in the presence of phosphates indicate a decrease in the exchange capacity of zeolite due to its competition for active absorption centres. This study was carried out with two ions of inorganic nature. In the presence of the third organic component in the solution (protein substance – albumin), the sorption capacity of zeolite decreases even more in comparison with ammonium ions. It was found that in the presence of phosphates, the equilibrium capacity of zeolite towards ammonium decreases by about 30 %; in the three-component system the reduction reaches about 70 %.
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    Use of clay sorptive materials in the synthesis of polymer materials
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Kryklyvyi, Rostyslav; Sakalova, Halyna; Petrushka, Kateryna; Luchyt, Liubov; Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University; Lviv Polytechnic National University
    The paper suggests the solution to the urgent problem of increasing the level of environmental safety of industrial wastewater treatment from heavy metal using natural and modified bentonite.The use of spent bentonite in the processes of filling polymers is investigated. The aim of the research was to study the influence of fillers on the crosslinking course and functional properties of vulcanized elastomeric mixtures. Test research compositions included chloroprene rubber and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. Nanofillers were used as a strengthening substance. Montmorillonite and spent montmorillonite saturated with copper ions were used as nanofiller.
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    Environmental risk assessment of explosive residues toxicological impact on humans on the former combat area
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Orel, Serhiy; Durach, Vadim; Naumko, Mykhaylo; Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi National Army Academy
    This article evaluates the impact of explosives residues left after the explosion of low-detonation munitions on the health of population (children and adults) living on the former battlefield. To determine the toxicological impact of explosives on humans, we used data from artillery shelling near the village of Stepanivka, Donetsk region, during the fighting in 2014. By the number of craters formed on the battlefield and their size, the calibre of the shells and, accordingly, the mass of the explosives were determined. When calculating the mass of unexploded explosives, it was assumed that the number of munitions with low detonation was 2.5 %, while the mass of “unburned” explosives in them was 37 % from the total. The types of explosives were mixtures of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) – 40 % and 1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) – 60 %. To assess the toxicological effects of explosives on humans, this study used the EPA's assessment model of health risk. Noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks associated with the influence of explosives on people were evaluated. The results of the risk assessment suggest that the residual amount of explosives in the soil does not lead to dangerous consequences for the health of people who are living on the territory of the former hostilities. However, the lack of data about the location of explosive objects (unexploded munitions, land mines etc.) into the soil of Donbas does not allow us fully assess their toxicological hazard to humans and the environment. The problem of the toxicological impact of explosive residues on residents and the environment of the Donbas region remains relevant.
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    Investigation of the influence of finely dispersed solid substances of the atmospheric air on humans
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Kozii, Ivan; Sumy State University
    An analytical study of the impact of solids contained in the air of urban areas on human health was conducted. Based on the analysis of the database of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the State Statistics Service of Ukraine on the emissions of substances into the atmosphere, it was established that the effects of solids on humans depend on particle diameter, morphological and physicochemical characteristics. The analytical research has shown that suspended airborne substances primarily damage the respiratory system and cause harm to the human cardiovascular system. The forecast model of emissions of finely dispersed suspended solids (PM2.5 and less) in Ukraine until 2030 was obtained. The critical analysis of indicators of admissible levels of pollution, considering the comparative characteristic of foreign and domestic standards of admissible concentration of suspended solids in the atmospheric air of settlements, was carried out.
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    10th anniversary of the Viacheslav Chornovil Institute of Sustainable Development
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2022-06-01) Moroz, Oleksandr; Kuz, Olha; Ruda, Mariia; Lviv Polytechnic National University
    The Vyacheslav Chornovil Institute of Sustainable Development, like every newly created unit (in 2021 the ICT celebrated its 10th anniversary), is in the process of development and growth: new specialties have been licensed, laboratories have been established, international cooperation is developing and the number of students is growing.The peculiarity of the institute is that it is multidisciplinary. The Vyacheslav Chornovil Institute of Sustainable Development trains specialists in five different fields of knowledge (natural sciences, production and technology, service, management and administration, civil security) in five specialties: “Ecology”, “Environmental Protection Technologies environment”, “Tourism”, “Entrepreneurship, trade and exchange activities”, “Civil Security". In addition, Vyacheslav Chornovil Institute of Sustainable Development provides general education for students of all specialties in ecology, labor protection, life safety and civil protection.