# Ukrainian Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science. – 2016. – Vol. 2, No. 1

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Науковий журнал

Засновник і видавець Національний університет «Львівська політехніка». Виходить двічі на рік з 2015 року.

** Ukrainian Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science = Український журнал із машинобудування і матеріалознавства : науковий журнал / Lviv Politechnic National University ; editor-in-chief Oleksiy Lanets. – Lviv, 2016. – Volume 2, number 1. – 74 p. : il. – Паралельна назва англійською. **

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Item Mathematical model of elements of automated system of loose materials dosing(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Kozak, AndriyAutomatic dosing system for loose materials is widely used in construction, food and pharmaceutical industries to prepare various mixtures. The main criterion for optimization of such systems is the accuracy of dosing of each component of the mixture, which depends on the speed component dosing and other process factors. Technological requirements for product quality in production and the high cost of individual components of the mixture strictly regulate the developers of the automated system loose materials size dosing errors. Ensuring compliance with the maximumpossible mix recipe requires dosing of each component with high accuracy, which is a daunting task for engineers. Precision dispensing in automated systems is a function of the large number of systematic and random factors: size, shape and relative position of individual particles of the material; coupling coefficient of each other and of the structural elements of the dispenser; relative humidity of material dosage and indoor air; the height of the fall of the material in the receiving container; the value of the dispenser tilt to a level of horizon; electromechanical vibration and noise, etc. Developed simulation model of frequency-controlled electric screw feeder that is different from the known one facts that modeling of screw feeder is considering mass “falling pillar” which is constantly changing as the accumulation of material in the hopper.Item Analysis and improvement of two-mass vibrating tubular conveyers with two-cycle electromagnetic drive(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Shenbor, Vladyslav; Koruniak, Petro; Korendiy, Vitaliy; Brusentsov, Volodymyr; Brusentsova, MartaThe analysis of structure diagrams of the two-mass tubular conveyer with two-cycle electromagnetic drive is carried out in the article. Two methods of designing of the elastic system are considered; calculation formulas for elastic system computation are deduced according to different requirements for the operating parameters of conveyers; the comparative analysis of two types of elastic systems is conducted. The recommendations for designing the lengthy tubular vibrating conveyers are presented. According to the considered structural diagrams of the elastic system the models of the lengthy vibrating conveyers with the transporting distances l =1,5...4 m are developed. On the basis of these models the lengthy vibrotransporting systems with the transporting distance l = 5...30 m were developed, manufactured and applied in industry. The considered systems ensures the transportation of loose materials (porcelain composition, sand etc.) with maximal speeds up to 800 mm/sec and productivities (for tubes with internal diameter D =100 mm) up to 30 tons per hour for. It is reasonable to use both considered schemes of elastic systems for development of vibrating tubular conveyers with electromagnetic drive. The conveyers may be designed in two modifications: overhead and supporting. The obtained dependencies allow optimization of the structure and considering the important technical parameters of conveyers (maximal permissible oscillations amplitude, springs stresses, productivity etc.) in the design phase.Item Research of influence of oscillations of tool-part system on roughness of surface layer during high-speed friction strengthening(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Dmyterko, Petro; Novitskyi, Yurii; Gurey, VolodymyrDuring the discontinued friction strengthening except of the high-speed friction the processes of high-frequency shock loadings appears in the tool-part contact zone. The vibrations occur in the machine elastic system. During the vibrations of elastic systems, in the material of elastic elements and in the connecting units of the structure parts the energy dissipation into the ambient medium takes place. The energy dissipation of vibrations occurs due to the influence of the inelastic resistance forces on which the energy of the oscillatory system is spent. The vibrations of the tool-part system during the friction strengthening are similar to forced oscillations. However, for some particles of the part these oscillations are damped ones because the tool moves along the surface. The vibrations of the elastic system of the machine during the discontinued friction strengthening in the first approximation may be considered as free oscillations. For their investigation let us use the method of shock (impact) perturbation with a help of special measuring hammer which allows defining of the damping coefficient. With a help of the accelerometer and the hammer the shock (impact) curve and the registration curve of the tool-part vibrations were obtained. The obtained registration curve of tool-part vibrations was expanded into the Fourier series and with a help of MatLab program the obtained signal was filtered. Due to determination of the amplitude of vibrations and the oscillation period the logarithmic decrement of damping was defined. This parameter may be used for determination of the dynamic parameters of the oscillatory system of the converted machine. For defining the oscillations which arises in the part being machined we used the dynamometer, in which the piezo-crystal sensor was rigidly fixed. This sensor allows the readout of oscillations along three directions (along vertical, horizontal and transversal axis). Experimental research showed that the amplitude increased with increasing the number of processing modes and the oscillation character has exact wave-like form. The working process along the longitudinal direction has step-wise character. The single contact zone is heated to high temperatures; the metal softens; the friction coefficient decreases and the step-wise transportation of the part along the longitudal direction is being carried out. These phenomena are also confirmed by the figure of the machined surface and by the results of investigation of the topography of the machined surface. It is also experimentally determined that horizontal and vertical displacements of the spindle and the table vibrate with the frequencies close to resonance ones. With increasing of the tool rotation speed these vibrations have the character of damped ones and this phenomenon allows reducing the parameters of roughness, undulation and flatness of the surfaces being strengthened.Item Two-mass vibrating conveyer with nonparallel flat springs(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Koruniak, Petro; Nishchenko, Iryna; Shenbor, Vladyslav; Korendiy, VitaliyThe analysis of operation of vibrating conveyers with nonparallel placement of flat springs is carried out. The motion of mechanical oscillating system is investigated. The structure of the supporting unit for flat springs fastening is propounded. This structure allows simplifying of setting-up of two-mass vibrating conveyers with the aim to ensure the effective operation. The models of conveyers with nonparallel placement of springs, providing the accurate calculations of rigidities and angles of flat springs inclinations, considerably simplify the structures of conveyers and their setting-up to ensure the prescribed angles of vibrations. The proposed structure of fastening of flat springs ends allows increasing of operation efficiency of the two-mass vibrating conveyer. Due to such setting-up of the equipment it is possible to compensate some of its theoretical and structural faults. On the basis of presented investigations, it is planned to develop the three-mass models of conveyers-separators with transporting of separated components in different directions.Item Computation of shaping errors for fine boring of smooth and stepped holes(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Оrgiyan, Alexander; Balanyuk, Anna; Kobelev, Vladimir; Tvorischuk, IvanOn the basis of precision theory we propose the method of computation of static and dynamic errors of cross-sectional shapes of holes in fine boring of smooth and stepped holes. We consider particular cross-sectional shape errors caused by such factors: – Error of the tooled hole form caused by the axis hope displacement in the workpiece relative to the spindle axis; – Error of the tooled hole form caused by the hole out-of-roundness in the workpiece; – Error of the tooled hole form caused by unevenness of the cutter radial compliance at the angle of spindle rotation. According to time characteristics the errors can be divided into static with frequency substantially less than the lowest natural frequency of the process system, and dynamic, caused by vibrations. Static error rate is usually a multiple of the spindle speed. The computations of deviations from the roundness of the cross section caused by vibrations are determined by computing the amplitudes of forced vibrations. Computations of individual static errors based on the average values of compliance, the material being processed and the processing mode are reduced to construction of nomographs for various materials. Dynamic errors are determined by computation of forced vibrations amplitudes on the basis of systems of ordinary differential equations describing the vibrations of a machine closed dynamic system. These equations allow to compute the amplitude of the forced vibrations of smooth and stepped boring bars. A distinctive feature of the computations for multiple tooling is allowance for mutual influence of excitations arising at each step of a boring bar. It is assumed that at multiple tooling each of the working cutters creates its own errors, the values of which are found by the nomograms for single-cutter tooling. Full tooling error at each step caused by some source of error is determined as the sum of the errors: of both, own and additional, caused by all working cutters. Additional errors can be found through coefficients of influence through dividing by the respective cutter's own compliance and through multiplying by the appropriate factor of influence. We obtained results of computations and experiments of the dependence of the total error on the ratio of the boring bar steps lengths. Analysis of roundness charts of the bored holes shows that vibrations can be a factor largely determining the shape of the cross section of the hole. Experiments have shown that when the rotation speed changed the excitations of the spindle poles changed too. Under unfavorable excitation frequencies the tooling errors increase by 1,5–2 times. The study results allow us to compare the two most common ways to reduce the errors caused by elastic deformations: the use of the dynamic damper and the processing of holes in two runs. The experimental results confirm the non-monotonic dependence of the amplitudes of forced vibrations on the ratio of the boring bar steps lengths.Item Dynamic modellingand control system of a single non-slender flexible robot’s link rotating in a horizontal plane(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Chovnyuk, Yuri; Gumeniuk, Yuri; Dikterjuk, MykhailoMost authors have ignored the effect of rotatory inertia and shear deformation. This practice is justified for slender flexible arms. According to the Timoshenko beam theory, the deflection due to shear force and rotatory inertia should be taken into account in modelling for high speed and high precision requirement when the ratio of the cross-sectional dimensions to length increases. Based on Hamilton’s principle and Timoshenko’s flexible beam theory, the dynamic model of a single non-slender flexible link is derived, and it is shown that the elastic motion is governed by a pair of coupled partial differential equations with coupled boundary conditions. Then the abstract form of the dynamic equations is studied, and the properties of the spectrum of the elastic operator appearing in the evolution equation are given. Furthermore, the eigenvalue problem of the elastic operator is solved in explicit form. The formulation and well-posedness of the state-space equation, as well as the transfer function of the dynamic control system of the non-slender flexible link, are studied by spectral analysis. Spectral analysis is used to study the well-posedness of the dynamic control system. The tracking control problem is studied and a feedback control scheme that controls the rigid-body motion and elastic behaviors simultaneously is derived based on a n-modal model. Closed-loop configuration of a control system, equivalent circuit of a dc-motor and the overall system block diagram are proposed. The stabilization of the closed-loop system is studied analytically. Finally, the tracking control problem is studied, a stabilizing feedback control law based on a n-modal model to suppress vibrations of the flexible link is derived, and the necessary and sufficient conditions that can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system, are given. Simulation results are given as well.Item Application of taguchi method for optimization of continuous drive frictionwelding process parameters(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016) Bhagi, Loveleen Kumar; Singh, Shankar; Singh, IndrajThe objective of present study was to determine optimal conditions to achieve satisfactory friction welds between two dissimilar metals namely copper and carbon steel bars of same diameter. Three process parameters namely speed of rotation, axial pressure, and forge pressure were considered for the present study. Two multiple performance characteristics, considered were breaking load strength and upset. The optimization of the process parameters was done using ANOVA. The obtained results indicated that the most significant process parameters are axial pressure and rotational speed that affect the optimization of multiple performance characteristics.Item Зміст до "Ukrainian Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science" Volume 2, number 1(Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2016)