Вимірювальна техніка та метрологія. – 2021. – Випуск 82, №4

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Measuring Equipment and Metrology : scientific journal. – Lviv : Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021. – Volume 82, № 4. – 68 р.

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  • Item
    Issue on measuring the light speed in vacuum
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Chaban Vasyl
    Based on the proposed differential equations of the interaction of the electric signal with the gravitational field, the observed phenomena are known as the gravitational lens and the Shapiro effect are investigated. The deflection of a light ray in the field of the Sun is simulated. It is shown that a moving photon undergoes in the gravitational field not only a transverse action, which causes a curvature of the trajectory but also a longitudinal one, implementing the acceleration-braking processes. As a result, the instability of the speed of light in a vacuum was revealed.
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    The wind turbine and the environment interaction model
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Boyko Taras; Ruda Maria; Stasevych Serhiy; Chaplyk Olha
    The modeling of the mutual influence of the wind power plant and the ecosystem is carried out. It is proposed to consider the compartment of a complex landscape complex as an elementary structural element of the ecosystem. The wind power plant is a component of a complex landscape complex and is considered during its life cycle. The categories of environmental impact and the relative contribution of harmful factors for each category have been determined. The modeling was carried out using various scenarios of waste management, which will make it possible to reduce the negative impact of harmful factors for each category. Summary data on the impact of harmful factors on the environment were obtained, and ecological profiles were constructed using the Eco-indicator methodology. Such profiles, together with the weighting factors, allow a comprehensive presentation of environmental impacts and obtaining the values of eco-indicators that characterize the damage caused by a wind turbine to the environment. The process of synthesis of an industrial cyber-physical system is carried out by five typical steps, among which the process of ‘cyber-realization’ is to create a cyber twin and compare it with the real system. To implement this process, mathematical modeling was carried out, as a result of which a system of differential equations was obtained, the input data for which were the values of environmental impacts, expressed by the specified indicators. The resulting model will act as ideal for a real system ‘wind turbine – environment”, and will allow predicting the consequences of the harmful impact of a wind turbine on a complex landscape system and will determine the main impacts to achieve its maximum efficiency and adaptation to the requirements for environmental protection and conservation. Some results obtained using the developed model are presented.
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    Risks of car parts production and smart metrology
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Yatsyshyn Svyatoslav; Slyuz Andriy
    The study of the metrological risks of the car cables’ production is provided in the current issue. It is proposed to develop several different sampling methods to form lots for the study. Their capabilities are evaluated according to selected criteria based on the available technology. The advantages of the dynamic method according to the possibilities of operative metrological workshops are shown. Certain advantageous factors of the method (e.g. percentage of cables to be measured; the lot’s waiting time, etc.) have been identified.
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    Frequency comb-coupled metrology lasers for nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Blumröder Ulrike; Füßl Ronald; Fröhlich Thomas; Manske Eberhard; Mastylo Rostyslav
    This article shows how a direct readout of the interferometric length measurement in nanopositioning machines can be transferred by connecting the metrology laser to a frequency comb line. The approach is based on a GPS-referenced frequency comb with which the stability of the timer (atomic clock via GPS) is transferred to the metrology laser of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine NPMM-200. The necessary prerequisites for ensuring traceability are discussed. It is demonstrated that with this approach an improvement in the long-term stability of the metrology laser by three orders of magnitude can be achieved.
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    The measuring channels calibration in the industry
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Sulyma Oleg; Mykyichuk Mykola; Zinchuk Iryna
    The trend of development of measuring equipment in particular measuring systems and technological processes leads to the need of measuring the temperature without dismantling the primary transducers and stopping the technological process in a very wide range and with high accuracy. The choice of methods and means of measurement depends on such factors as the value of measured temperature, necessary accuracy of measurement, conditions of measurements, and operation of the investigated object. The topicality of the problem is that industrial metrology operates the temperature measuring systems, transducers of which are deployed in such a way that their dismantling is impossible due to the specifics of the process or dangerous for operators’ life (nuclear power plants). Such measuring systems, due to the specifics of their application, are not metrologically provided in the periods between major repairs of controlled objects, thus violating the unity of measurements.
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    Global environmental monitoring system
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Mashevska Marta; Shchur Roman; Ostenda Aleksander
    This article reveals the problems of creating a monitoring system to assess the ecological state of the environment of the selected area. An information model of the system has been developed, which takes into account the parameters of air, surface water, and soil pollution. The main components of the system, including the logical model of the database, have been designed and implemented. To assess the state of the environment according to the selected pollution parameters, the fuzzy logic model is constructed.
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    Study of the primary converter-object system for electrochemical devices
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Bubela Tetiana; Yatsuk Vasyl; Fedyshyn Tetiana; Ivakh Roman; Krachunov Hristo
    Тhe problem of creating electrochemical devices and the issues that arise in the system of the primary converter object of control are considered. Low-resistance (salt solutions) and high-resistance (sugar solutions) objects were selected as the subject of study. To solve the problem, we have applied the method of impedance spectrum analysis with EIS Spectrum Analyzer software, which performs modeling on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. Substitution schemes in different frequency and concentration ranges of studied objects were synthesized. This enables appropriate corrective action to minimize the impact of adverse events in the system while monitoring the quality of solutions – non-electrical nature objects – by electrochemical devices.
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    Features of simulation of characteristics of thermometric material Lu1–xZrxNiSb
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Krayovskyy Volodymyr; Pashkevych Volodymyr; Horpenuk Andriy; Romaka Volodymyr; Stadnyk Yuriy; Romaka Lyubov; Horyn Andriy; Romaka Vitaliy
    The results of modeling the thermometric characteristics of the semiconductor solid solution Lu1–xZrxNiSb, which is a promising thermometric material for the manufacture of sensitive elements of thermoelectric and electro resistive thermocouples, are presented. Modeling of the electronic structure of Lu1–xZrxNiSb was performed by the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method in the approximation of coherent potential and local density and by the full-potential method of linearized plane waves (FLAPW). KKR simulations were performed using the AkaiKKR software package in the local density approximation for the exchange-correlation potential with parameterization Moruzzi, Janak, Williams in the semi-relativistic one taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. The implementation of the method in the Elk software package was used to perform FLAPW calculations. To check the limits of the existence of the thermometric material Lu1–xZrxNiSb, both methods were used to calculate the change in the values of the period of the unit cell a(x) in the range x = 0 – 1.0. It is shown that there is an agreement between the change in the values of a(x) Lu1–xZrxNiSb calculated by the FLAPW method and the results of experimental studies. The obtained result indicates higher accuracy of modeling of structural parameters Lu1–xZrxNiSb by the FLAPW method in comparison with the KKR method. To study the possibility of obtaining thermometric material Lu1–xZrxNiSb and to establish the limits of its existence in the form of a continuous solid solution, modeling of thermodynamic characteristics in the approximation of harmonic oscillations of atoms within the theory of DFT density functional for a hypothetical solid solution Lu1–xZrxNiSb, x = 0 – 1.0. The change in the values of the enthalpy of mixing ΔH and the total energy E Lu1–xZrxNiSb, x = 0–1.0, allows us to state that the thermometric material exists in the form of a solid substitution solution in the concentration range x = 0 – < 0.20. At higher conc exist. To understand the mechanisms of electrical conductivity of the thermometric material Lu1–xZrxNiSb, the methods of entry of impurity Zr atoms into the matrix of the basic semiconductor p-LuNiSb and their occupation of different crystallographic positions, as well as the presence of vacancies in them, were investigated. For this purpose, its electronic structure was modeled for different variants of the spatial arrangement of atoms and the presence of vacancies in crystallographic positions. It is shown that the most acceptable results of experimental studies are the model of the electronic structure of p-LuNiSb, which assumes the presence of vacancies in the crystallographic positions of 4a Lu atoms (~0.005) and 4c Ni atoms (~0.04). In this model of the spatial arrangement of atoms and the presence of vacancies at positions 4a and 4c, the LuNiSb compound is a semiconductor of the hole-type conductivity, in which the Fermi level eF is located near the level of the valence band eV. The kinetic characteristics of the semiconductor thermometric material Lu1–xZrxNiSb, in particular, the temperature dependences of the resistivity ρ(T, x) and the thermopower coefficient α(T, x) are modeled. It is established that at the lowest concentrations of impurity atoms Zr the Fermi level eF Lu1–xZrxNiSb passes from the bandgap to the conduction band eС. This is indicated by the negative values of the thermopower coefficient α(T, x) and the metallic conductivity type Lu1–xZrxNiSb. This changes the type of main current carriers from holes to electrons.
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    Study of the dielectric properties of industrial wood
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Yalechko Volodymyr; Lagun Andrii; Mamro Oleksandr
    n the article, we consider the model of pulse signal distortion in the computer sound card channel. The use of such a model allows expanding the possibilities of using computers in the researches of the wood properties in the form of various dielectric characteristics analysis, in particular using the computer sound card channel. This makes it possible to verify the state of the signal propagation channel during the experiment. This experiment researches samples of wood for the presence of defects. Also is proposed an approach to constructing the distortion model. It allows to expand the possibilities of investigating the parameters of the pulse signal and to verification the state of the channel during the research of the dielectric properties of wood. To research, a sample of wood using a computer sound card is developed a structured scheme that allows you to analyze the characteristics of pulse signals during the measurement process. To determine the dielectric parameters of different types of industrial wood is developed the software in the MATLAB environment. Using it is analyzed complex pulse signals that used during the research. In particular, were taken into account different currents of wood polarization and dielectric characteristics.
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    Detection of falsification of horilka by admittance spectroscopy
    (Lviv Politechnic Publishing House, 2021) Pokhodylo Yevhen; Kuts Viktor; Stasyshyn Yuriy
    The methods of quality control of horilka by electrical parameters, in particular, dielectric constant, specific conductivity, and imitation components are analyzed. The research results of individual samples of alcohol solutions and horilkas of different brands by the method of admittance spectroscopy were also analyzed. Based on this, methods for detecting falsification of horilka products by the method of admittance spectroscopy are proposed. The reactive component of the control object's ad is selected as an informative parameter. Two types of falsification are analyzed. The first is the falsification of the original horilka by replacing it with an aqueous-alcohol solution. The second – by replacing one brand of horilka with another. The analysis of the obtained results of researches of two types of objects on reactive components of their admittance in the frequency range 100 Hz – 100 kHz showed the following: characteristic features of dependencies of reactive components on frequency are revealed; they have been found to have extreme values at different frequencies. The reactive component of the admittance of aqueous-alcohol solutions reaches an extreme value at the beginning of the range. The same component of the original horilkas of different brands has extreme values at the end of the range. Based on this, methods for prompt detection of falsifications are proposed.