Humanitarian Vision. – 2016. – Vol. 2, No. 1

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    Метафілософія Григорія Сковороди
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Карівець, Ігор
    У статті творчість Григорія Сковороди розглянуто з метафілософського підходу. Цей підхід виявляє синкретизм його творчості. Синкретизм проявляється в єдності філософорелігійної та міфопоетичної складової. Тому недоречним є виокремлення філософії, богослов’я, релігії, поезії та міфу для аналізу як складових його творчості. У статті Григорій Сковорода постає продовжувачем традиції “вічної філософії”, яка є синкретичною. In this article the heritage of Hryhoriy Skovoroda is considered from the metaphilosophical point of view. This approach is useful because it allows seeing some syncretism as unity of philosophy, theology, religion, myth, and poetry in the legacy of Hryhoriy Skovoroda. Therefore, the author stresses that when we analyze Hryhoriy Skovoroda’s legacy, it is wrong to divide it into such parts as philosophy, theology, religion, myth, and poetry. This division does not lead to the whole understanding of Hryhoriy Skovoroda’s personality and works. The author argues that Hryhoriy Skovoroda is the follower of Philosophia Perennis tradition, characterized by syncretism. Such syncretism of Skovoroda’s writings is neither bad nor good. We see unique unity of philosophy, poetry, religion and mythology in Skovoroda’s life and his works. The author argues that such a unity is useful for deeper understanding of the world and a human being. Syncretic unity of Skovoroda’s worldview helps to overcome different oppositions of classical philosophy (subject-object, inner-external, immortal-mortal, natural-supernatural, human-divine, relative-absolute etc.). We live in times of analysis and fragmented world. Therefore syncretism is very hard to understand. In order to understand syncretism, we should return to synthetic thinking, rediscover the synthetic function of our consciousness. Life and works of Skovoroda show us how a human being can think synthetically and regain the whole worldview. The whole worldview helps to live in harmony with others and nature. This harmony is necessary in our times of “moral blindness” (Zygmunt Bauman), decline of traditions which directed us towards common values.
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    Зміст до "Humanitarian Vision" Volume 2, number 1
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016)
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    Особливості латиноамериканського регіоналізму в контексті регіональної безпеки
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Бессараб, Тетяна
    Досліджено феномен регіоналізму на латиноамериканському континенті в контексті регіональної безпеки. Розглянуто причини, етапи та особливості зародження інтеграційних об’єднань у Латинській Америці та характер їх функціонування. The article investigates the phenomenon of regionalism on the Latin American continent in context of regional security. It analyzes causes, stages and features of origination of integration associations in Latin America, and nature of their operation. The author notes that Latin American integration experience which has managed to develop mechanisms for encountering external forces will be very useful for Ukrainian politicians who think seriously about how to put into practice the idea of the European Union. Latin American regionalization process falls within 1980-1999 and is caused by the first appearance of integration associations on the continent, transformation of political regimes, foundation of democracy, and economic freedom from the USA. The article reveals that regional integration associations such as MERCOSUR, UNASUR, ECLAC in their activities adhere to certain principles: anti-American movement which manifests itself in the political and economic counteraction of Latin America in the form of MERCOSUR, UNASUR, ECLAC; the policy of “developmentalism” which is meant to harmoniously combine liberal principles of integration and leftist sentiments of all MERCOSUR member-states; growing role of Brazil and Venezuela as powerful political actors on international arena and key members and ideological inspirers of Latin American societies which, having large reserves of natural resources, feel free to change areas of cooperation, for instance with China, thereby transform political color of the continent. Based on cooperation between Venezuela and China, revival of the EU-MERCOSUR relations, and gradual loosening of ties with NAFTA, we can state that the whole Latin American continent has radically changed its to some extent ideological anti-American, domestic and foreign policy, and is forming its own regional system of security.
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    Політологічний аналіз основних методик вимірювання рівня демократії у світі
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Бучин, Микола
    Розглянуто проблему вимірювання рівня демократичності політичного режиму країн світу. Проаналізовано як авторські підходи до визначення рівня демократії у світі, так і підходи та проекти міжнародних наукових та громадських установ. The problem of indexing with its important role in the study of democracy is emphasized which enables formalized approach to democracy and allows evaluating efficiency of political system transformation . The methodological approaches to indexing democracy are considered. Both the author’s approaches to determining the level of democracy in the world (the Ph. Cutright Index of Political Democracy, the K. Bollen Index of Political Democracy, the K. Herpfer Democracy Index) and approaches and projects of international scientific and public institutions (The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index, the Freedom House project “Nations in Transit”, the Bertelsmann Foundation Transformation Index, the Index of Democratization created by scientists of the University of Helsinki led by T. Vanhanen, the “Political atlas of modernity” project carried out by the Moscow State Institute of International Relations led by A. Melville, approach to the development of criteria for a democratic regime by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). Each of the approaches to defining of democracy was subjected to qualitative assessment, their positive and negative aspects, efficiency and level of results reliability were shown. The important role which democratic elections play in each of the methods of indexing democratic political regime was emphasized. It is assumed that formalized approach to democracy and determining its level can be applied to its attributive elements, in particular, to the institute of elections. This enables development of methodology for determining the democratic level of elections which is extremelly important since Ukrainian political science lacks such a methodology.
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    Знаки часу у вченні Папи Івана ХХІІІ
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Волинець, Оксана
    Проаналізовано позицію Римського понтифіка Івана ХХІІІ у розпізнаванні і прочитанні “знаків часу” як світових подій та явищ, які становлять загрозу світовій безпеці і мирному співіснуванню міжнародної спільноти. У контексті відповіді на знаки часу, застосовуючи аналітичний, структурно-функціональний, системний методи та контент-аналіз, досліджуються, подані у працях Івана ХХІІІ рекомендації та механізми врегулювання міжнародних конфліктів та забезпечення миру і міжнародної безпеки. The article analyzes encyclicals of Pope of Rome John XXIII, which are dedicated to the issue of threats to international security and global peace. John XXIII investigated treatment of the concept of “signs of timе” and their interpretation in terms of the ColdWar and the Caribbean crisis. The main provisions of letters and encyclicals of John XXIII are analyzed, applying analytical, systematic, structural and functional methods and content analysis. As a result, their significant contribution to peace and security is revealed. The Pope provides characteric view on scientific and technological progress of mankind in all its positive and negative aspects, such as arms race, emergence of modern weapons of mass destruction, division of the world into parties and blocks, etc. Those characteristics were treated as unique signs of the time which requires immediate and adequate solution for the whole universal community, international organizations, each state itself, and the Church. Thus, the Pope John XXIII interprets all these negative trends of the modern world as amoral problemwhich destroys balance between politics andmorality. Further on, we investigate position of the Pope John XXIII concerning the need for renewal of the Church and its missionary activities in the context of social and political development. The Second Vatican Council, its Declarations, decrees and constitutions became the result of Pope’s aspirations. Those achievements have opened new opportunities for the Church within new social and political conditions of human society development. Special attention is given to the analysis of John XXIII’s encyclical “Peace on Earth”. It proposes methods, ways, and mechanisms to overcome international conflicts and rebuild the global security system. It is alleged that Pope John XXIII’s recommendations are still relevant today and international community can use them to achieve peace, universal order and ensure global security.
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    Безпековий потенціал ЄС: геополітичний та соціо-економічний виміри
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Івасечко, Ольга; Дорош, Леся
    Проаналізовано показники окремих складових геополітичного та соціо-економічного вимірів безпекового потенціалу ЄС порівняно з аналогічними показниками потенціалів інших впливових акторів. Враховано як істотні переваги ЄС, так й показники слабкості, що дало змогу визначити місце та силу цього інтеграційного об’єднання як у регіональному вимірі, так і у глобальній системі. Вказано, що нові держави-члени ЄС надають суттєвих переваг об’єднанню на міжнародній арені, незважаючи на свій порівняно нижчий соціально-економічний рівень. The article analyzes indicators of certain constituents of geopolitical and socio-economic dimensions of the EU’s security potential in comparison with similar indicators of potentials of other powerful international actors. The analysis is accomplished in the context of the problems and prospects of further development of this integration union and its reaction to the newest threats to international and European security. Both the substantial advantages and indicators of weakness of the EU are considered by analyzing political and economic experts’ predictions concerning actual and future state of affairs in the EU in 2016. These indicators in their aggregate have given an opportunity to determine the place and strength of this integration union in both regional dimension and global security system. Taking into account the basic geographic, demographic, social and economic indexes (which primarily are compared with the economic strength of the USA) of the EU’s security potential, significant achievements of the EU, substantiated by the fact of cumulative potential of 28 EU members-states, are ascertained. Such potential is considerably higher in comparison to particular capabilities of the EU’s member-states. Thus, it is indicated that under geopolitical criterion after the last fifth enlargement of the EU (due to accession of Romania, Bulgaria (2007) and Croatia (2013)), its area expanded by nearly 25 %; however, it is smaller in comparison to Russia and the USA). Taking into consideration that EU covers 3 % of the globe, its consequential position on the geopolitical map of the world is mentioned. Furthermore, under security standpoint the growth of union’s population is analysed. The fact of considerable number of EU citizens is identified as positive, especially taking into consideration formation of the large target market and high purchasing power of citizens, etc. However, the article indicates challenges in this domain related to persistent depopulation in Europe in comparison to planetary population, which along with ageing trends carry significant security risks. Thus, the new EU member-states provide significant advantages to the association on the international arena, despite their comparatively lower social and economic level. Furthermore, in political science comparative studies of global actors’ potentials in the military sphere should be considered as perspective, in order to identify and prevent threats to national, regional and global security.
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    Інформаційна безпека України: сучасні виклики, загрози та механізми протидії негативним інформаційно-психологічним впливам
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Ільницька, Уляна
    Досліджено проблему інформаційної безпеки України та захисту національного інформаційного простору від негативних пропагандистсько-маніпулятивних інформаційно-психологічних впливів. Проаналізовано теоретичні підходи до визначення сутності поняття інформаційна безпека; всебічно досліджено види реальних і потенційних інформаційних загроз для медіапростору України, охарактеризовано специфіку експансіоністської політики Російської федерації проти України; надано практичні рекомендації щодо вдосконалення державної інформаційної політики та створення ефективної системи інформаційної безпеки України. The article is devoted to the topical issue of Ukrainian information security and protection of the national information space from negative propagandistic and manipulative information-psychological impacts. It is emphasized that the problem is actualized under conditions of the Ukraine-Russia conflict when ensuring information security turns into a factor of preserving national identity of Ukraine and its functioning as a sovereign independent state. The article is an attempt to analyze theoretical approaches to defining the nature of such notions as information security and a threat to information security. Particular attention is paid to investigation of information expansion by the Russian Federation aimed at securing its domination within the Ukrainian media space. Technologies of Russian information-psychological operations based on biased and tendentious coverage of facts and phenomena, distortion, misrepresentation, and miscommunication of information are analyzed. The article comprehensively studies types and kinds of real and potential information threats to media space of Ukraine and Ukrainian sovereignty; analyzes mechanisms of exerting negative propagandistic information-psychological influences. Particular attention is paid to methods of national information space protection, counteraction to wide-scale information-psychological influences, wars and operations. The research introduces developed recommendations concerning formation of strategic directions of the state policy in the sphere of ensuring Ukrainian information security, improving normative and legal basis for preserving information sovereignty of Ukraine, protecting its national space.
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    Пак Кин Хе – президент республіки Корея, залізна леді Азії
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Матлай, Любава
    Висвітлено нелегкий життєвий шлях та неординарне політичне бачення однієї із найвизначніших азійських політиків, першої за останні тисячу років жінки-президента Республіки Корея Пак Кин Хе. Її обрання на вищий пост у державі було вражаючим досягненням, враховуючи, що Південна Корея має найвищий рівень гендерної нерівності серед розвинених країн світу. The paper deals with the main aspects of the political biography and reviews the first female president in Korea’s history in the 21st century Ms. Park Geun-Hye, whoalso is the first woman head of the state in the modern history of Northeast Asia. Her election to the highest post in the state was an especially impressive achievement considering that SouthKorea has the highest level of gender inequality among developed countries in the world. In this country and in the whole Northeastern Asian region politics has been a male-dominated occupation and women have been underrepresented. Special attention is paid to factors which conditioned success of the presidential elections winner. Inauguration of the president of the ROK ParkGeun-Hye was a turning point in the role of women in South Korean politics. Finally, the president Park is a rare female leader in a male-dominated political system. The author of the paper examines the role of familial ties in Park Geun-Hye’s political history. It is found that the basic foreign policy strategy of President Park’s administration is politics of trust which consists of three pillars: trust diplomacy and multilateral cooperation in Asia; strong defense and strong deterrence; the Korean peninsula trust process. The leaders of Asia’s countries shared common understanding of the need to upgrade bilateral and multilateral strategic partnership to higher level of cooperation for peace and prosperity of the international community. Тhe author considers the approach of President Park towards the USA, Japan, China, North Korea. The President of South Korea is a proponent of negotiating between the two Koreas, rather than adopting military solutions. In her reconciliation project, the peace building process for two Koreas should start with demilitarization, followed by economic and political integration.
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    Інституційно-зумовлені причини та передумови формування урядів меншості у європейських парламентських демократіях
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Панчак-Бялоблоцька, Надія
    Проаналізовано інституційно-зумовлені причини і передумови формування урядів меншості у європейських парламентських демократіях. Виявлено, що інституційна зумовленість урядів меншості у парламентських демократіях є доволі різносторонньою, але переважно окреслюється проблематикою політичної стабільності та політичної культури. The article is dedicated to analysing institution-based reasons and background of minority governments’ formation in the European parliamentary democracies. The researcher has found that the institutional conditionality of minority governments in parliamentary democracies is quite versatile, but is mostly defined with problems of political stability and political culture. The study showed that clarification of the political and institutional based characteristics, nature, causes and features of government formation and functioning in the European parliamentary democracies has both ideological and conceptual meaning, because it can testify on the generalized specifics of governments at all and can show the patterns of parliamentary democracies functioning in the cases of parliamentary minorities. This is particularly noteworthy in the view of the fact that minority governments are not unified and monolithic structures in the context of the European institutional practices. The fact is that they differ in their composition, dimensionality, ideologies, reasons of formation and peculiarities of responsibility. That is why different types of minority governments in the European parliamentary democracies are able to produce various political, legal and socio-economic impacts and to be determined by different formative and functional parameters. In addition, determining specifics of minority governments is essential in view of the fact that these institutional structures of cabinets account for more than thirty percent of all European (in Western, Central and Eastern European countries) governments, thus, minority government, as the European experience and comparative statistics show, is a "normal" phenomenon of political process and inter-institutional relations in parliamentary democracies. Accordingly, the elucidation of their institution-based reasons of formation is important theoretically, methodologically and empirically.
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    Роль УГКЦ у передвиборчій агітації парламентських виборів 2012 р.
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Пасічний, Роман
    Складні та суперечливі аспекти демократичних перетворень в Україні потребують значного наукового переосмислення ролі релігійного чинника у суспільно-політичних процесах України і зокрема у виборах. Значущість обраної проблематики зумовлена також активізацією реформування суспільно-політичної сфери в Україні та проблемами, які виникають внаслідок таких трансформацій. Аналіз місця і ролі УГКЦ у виборчому процесі України свідчить про складність взаємовідносин релігії та політики і потребує значного переосмислення, комплексного та глибокого аналізу всіх чинників і тенденцій такого взаємовпливу. The democratic process which began under conditions of the independent Ukrainian state greatly influenced revival of religious life as the opposite effect on the political process, including determining changes in political forms of life. Difficult and controversial democratic reforms in Ukraine require serious scientific revaluation of the place and role of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), which in modern terms is using all available tools in its arsenal to form social relationships based on Christian principles and strengthening Ukrainian nation. Despite significant number of scientific papers, which address problems of the Church as a religious institution, most of them turn its role into political life. Given this, it is important from the perspective of modern science to study the role and place of the UGCC in socio-political processes in Ukraine and particularly the election. Significance of selected issues also caused activation of reforming social and political spheres of Ukraine and problems arising from these transformations. Despite removal of formal politics, church leaders were constantly involved in campaigning. Candidates attempted to attract the Church for campaigning in their favour, due to its high prestige among the population of Ukraine and possibility of its influence on the formation of electoral preferences. The Church Administration tries to resist this phenomenon and limit the activities of priests in the elections with the help of instructions, guidelines and penalties for disobedience, while parliamentary candidates are constantly trying to attract them to campaigning. Analysis of the place and role of the Church in the electoral process in Ukraine shows the complex nature of relationships between religion and politics and requires serious rethinking, comprehensive and deep analysis of all factors and trends in such interference.
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    Історія і зміст лінійної концепції глобального розвитку
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Тишкун, Юрій
    Розглянуто поняття глобального розвитку – змін людства: кількісних (його матеріальних показників) і якісних (його природи), структурних. Стверджено, що ідейні витоки концепції розвитку закорінені в есхатології, вігівському баченні прогресу, стадіальних (позитивістських, марксистських) теоріях історії. Констатовано, що у зазначених теоріях розвиток (“прогрес”, історія) трактують як лінійне, поступове розгортання досягнень людства. Натомість циклічний, нелінійний розвиток людства з ідейних мотивів визначається як неможливий. Зміна кількісного глобального розвитку якісним забезпечується через біфуркацію. The notion of global development is considered. Olena Koppel argues that nature of the category “global development” is still unclear and precisely undefined in different scientific concepts. Nevertheless, scientists have considered its determinants, aspects, vectors, despite lack of precise explanation of this term in the wide and narrow sense. Considered concept has originated from a wider concept of development. The idea of development came out from linear historical views of eschatological religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam, etc.), the Whig interpretation of progress, rationalistic and stages theory concepts of history proposed by positivists and Marxists and also from the meliorism principle. It is stated that these concepts consider concepts of progress and history as strictly linear, gradual, cumulative deployment of man and mankind achievements in all directions. From the perspective of these theories cyclic non-linear development is impossible because of its negative psychological and social consequences, in particular, due to the absence of progress as stressed by I. Wallerstein. And vice versa, the idea of progress is incompatible with concepts of relativism and degradation. The global (social) development, as a type of development in general, which includes international, national and human development is emphasized. The global development appears possible due to maintaining stability of global society. This stability is based on the mechanism of social inertia that provides heredity in global society and is embodied in structure of humanity differentiation for successful adaptation to natural environmental challenges. Global development includes two dialectically united dimensions. The first one is quantitative development as the changes in material culture, economy and humanity productivity. This kind of progress is based on usage of limited external (natural) resources. The second dimension is the qualitative development, i.e.changes in humanity nature, its culture. This development is based on usage of unlimited internal (cultural and psychological) resources of humanity. Connection between these measurements of global development is provided by bifurcation (overwhelming) during which the excess “degree” of certain quantitative indicators of global development causes changes in its quality.
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    Перспективи Східного партнерства в умовах геополітичних та безпекових змін cхідноєвропейського регіону
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Турчин, Ярина
    Розглянуто ініціативу “Східне партнерство” і доведено, що проблема її реформування набувала значної актуальності в умовах агресивної зовнішньої політики Російської Федерації, суперечностей всередині Європейського Союзу та відсутності тут уніфікованої позиції щодо вирішення нагальних політичних і безпекових проблем європейського регіону. За допомогою структурно-функціонального, системного та порівняльного методів визначено вразливі елементи у конструкції СП з урахуванням поточних геополітичних загроз. Вироблено пропозиції для реформування східної політики ЄС. The article dwells upon “Eastern Partnership” (EaP) initiativeand proves that the issue of its reforming has been acquiring considerable relevance under conditions of the aggressive foreign policy of the Russian Federation, contradictions within the European Union, and lack of a unified position on the solution of pressing political and security problems in the European region. The causes serving as prerequisites for the EU Eastern policy reformation are determined and are the following: the European Union has failed to develop a common strategy for relations with Eastern European countries; while implementing the foreign policy with Eastern direction, the EU has been unable to defend the sovereignty and integrity of the EaP recipients; European partners have not yet managed to transform the EaP countries into stable democracies with real democratic institutions. With the structural-functional, systematic and comparative methods applied, vulnerable elements in the EaP structure, given the current geopolitical threats, are identified. Based on analytical works, key priorities of the Eastern Partnership reformation are clarified, namely: strengthening differentiation between associative and non-associative members of the initiative according to the level of implementation of European reforms; securing the EU membership for those countries which have made the greatest progress in implementing European standards and practices; broader application of the “more for more” approach for the EaP participant countries; increased mobility of citizens as a priority of the Eastern Partnership; strengthening the initiative security component, particularly in the energy security sphere. Proposals for the EU Eastern policy development in the security sphere are made. It is concluded that the Eastern Partnership transformation into a new integration security model can take place only after a significant deepening of the differentiated approach to the EaP recipients in the program implementation, as well as when EU member-states become interested in such project changes.
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    Nacjonalizm walijski
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Wojtashak, Andrew
    Prezentowany artykuł dotyczy Walijczyków, jednego z narodów zamieszkujących obszar Wielkiej Brytanii. Celem przeprowadzonych badań jest pokazanie specyfiki walijskiego nacjonalizmu, który pomimo silnej angielskiej dominacji, pozwolił tej nacji na wielowiekowe przetrwanie, tradycji, kultury, języka oraz stworzenia racjonalnych prób utrzymania własnej odrębności na Wyspach Brytyjskich. Analiza brytyjskich nacjonalizmów pokazuje, że Walijczycy są najczęściej traktowani jako “ostatni w kolejce”, po Anglikach, Irlandczykach z Północy i Szkotach. Walijczycy prowadzą działania w obronie własnej kultury i języka, stopniowo dąćąc do stworzenia czytelnej odrębności. Pytanie, które się pojawia sprowadza się do stwierdzenia, czy istnieją granice poza które takie ewolucyjne (dewolucyjne) zmiany ze strony Walijczyków nie powinny wykraczać? Jest to proces, który trwa. Początek w przypadku Walii dała Plaid Cymru. Dziś jest to narodowa sprawa całej Cymru. Być może, wspieranie działań pozwalających na odczucie takiej odrębności, pozwoli na uregulowanie ralacji w sposób oczekiwny przez Walijczyków. Rodzą się jednak nowe pytanie, mogące być przedmiotem dalszych badań: czy następnym krokiem nie będą działania separatystyczne? I wreszcie pytanie: czy we współczesnej nam rzeczywistości nie będziemy mieli do czynienia ze wzrostem separatyzmów, również wśród średnich i małych narodów? Kwestie t te powinny być przedmiotem stałej anlizy, która umożliwiałaby poszukiwanie rozwiązań problemów w sposób bezkonfliktowy. The article refers to the Welsh, one of nations inhabiting the area of the United Kingdom. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the specificity of Welsh nationalism, which despite strong English domination, allowed this nation to preserve its tradition, culture, language for centuries, and create a rational attempt to maintain their own identity on the British Isles. Analysis of British nationalism shows that the Welsh are most often treated as the “last in line” after Englishmen, Irishmen from North and Scots. In the modern formula of nationalism, it is not a phenomenon but rather rebirth and compilation of existing views, born in different environments of the local, regional or even national. People are united through language, politics, economics, tradition or religion. Taking into account processes in society, the Welsh are associated with the development of the centuries-old tradition, distinct awareness, equally important with the possibility of displaying, which is evident in activity of Plaid Cymru (Welsh National Party). Welsh activities are carried out in defense of their own culture and language, gradually seeking to create a clear distinction. The question that arises is reduced to determining whether there are limits beyond which such evolutionary (devolutionary) changes from the Welsh should not go? It is lasting process. The case of Wales gave Plaid Cymru. Today it is a national issue across Cymru. Changes in attitudes of peoples inhabiting the area of the United Kingdom, efforts to confirm their own identity are implemented in different ways. Scottish separatism attempts to create an independent state. Despite the existence of compromise between Belfast and London on wide degree of autonomy by the Irish of Ulster separatist aspirations can return at any time. It is difficult today to think about total independence of Wales. Nevertheless, the Cymru community shows that the identified national goals, providing universal agreement on reforming the United Kingdom. Perhaps, supporting measures to make sense of such a separation will regulate relations expected by Welsh. They raise, however, a new question, which may be the subject of further research: whether will separatist activities not be the next step? And the final question is whether in our contemporary reality, we will not have to deal with the increase in separatism among medium and small nations as well. These problems should be the subject of constituent analysis which would enable search for solutions in a non-confrontational manner.
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    “Стіна” Планка як агностичний принцип у фундаментальному науковому пізнанні
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Кадикало, Андрій
    Розглянуто тему можливих меж наукового пізнання та філософського принципу, який маніфестує ці межі. Вказано, що наукові пошуки мають певні вихідні принципи та установки, які пов’язані із абсолютними поняттями та категоріями незалежними від суб’єкта пізнання. Окреслено появу нового принципу “стіна” Планка, який з’явився як наслідок накладання обмеження на емпіричні спостереження у фундаментальній науці та внаслідок цього може отримати статус агностичного. Modern fundamental science is in very unusual situation. From the first side it uses high technology (similar to Large Hadron Collider), but from the other side it has faced the range of obstacles. This problems probably don`t have any solution and, what is more important, it means existing of reality at the quantum level. In scientist’s world, it is accepted to think that problems of science have temporary nature. However, there are some problems which are not easy to solve on borderlines of classical science knowledge and traditional rationality. Philosophers and scientists like Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Rene Descartes, Gottfried Leibniz had an idea about unlimited and continuous scientific knowledge. It is possible if we will follow true method. However, philosophy takes an alternative position which contradict an idea of unlimited scientific knowledge. This idea names agnosticism which arises in ancient philosophy. The notion of “agnosticism” has ancient Greek roots: α – not, without, and γνώσις – knowledge, understanding. It means that humans cannot know of the existence of anything beyond phenomena of their experience. David Hume told that meaningful statements about the universe are always qualified by some degree of doubt. He asserted that fallibility of human beings means that they cannot obtain absolute certainty except in trivial cases where a statement is true by definition. Thomas Henry Huxley continued Hume`s tradition of agnosticism. He wrote that his personality is the surest thing he knows which may be true. But the attempt to conceive what it is leads him into mere verbal subtleties. He has champed up all that chaff about the ego and the non-ego, noumena and phenomena, and all the rest of it, too often not to know that in attempting even to think of these questions, the human intellect flounders at once out of its depth. Nowadays a new kind of agnostically principle appears in the field of Quantum Physics and it is called “The Planck Wall”. Though its name suggests that this is a spatial phenomenon, it, actually, pertains to time. In science and philosophy this principle of “The Planck Wall” explains creating of a borderline of knowledge. Probably, this borderline is not possible to overcome.
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    Трансформація буттєвих виявів людини в просторі мережевої культури
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Онищук, Оксана
    Проаналізовано особливості мережевої культури, її вплив на соціокультурний простір людини, на ціннісні й комунікативні буттєві прояви. Виокремлено особливості функціонування та основні риси мережевої культури. Показано, що новий тип соціальних відносин змінює моделі поведінки людей, трансформує цінності, генерує нові культурні коди і звички. The article analyzes features of the network culture and its impact on socio-cultural space of a human being, on values and communication existential expressions. Peculiarities of functioning and basic features of network culture are determined. The main features are: publicity, space compression, acceleration of the time, nonlinearity, semantic and axiological pluralism, impairing of the value of individuality (strengthening the value of belonging to a community instead), links with other subjects and group correlation as a result of inability of existing hierarchies of traditional structures (such as official ones) to solve human problems, publicity, dialoging, emotionality, globalism. A new type of social networking changes the people’s behaviour models, transforms values, generates new cultural preferences and habits, and provides a higher level of expression of the person with the ability to match his/her real identity or stay different in network communication. There are also identity transformations under the influence of changes in socio-cultural environment, where virtual network communities play the leading role in the identification implementation. Network culture causes instability of orientations and problems with personal identity. The network environment cannot be reduced to simple information transfer by the means of communication. It should be clear that it generates and transmits certain cultural codes. Problems which arise in this context and are related to existential manifestations of a Man can be described as medialization of a person, thinking visualization, transformation of the institute of authorship, preservation of cultural identity, new understanding of art, cultural traditions, gender characteristics, social roles.
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    Роль філософії в житті сучасного суспільства: питання без відповідей
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Петрушенко, Віктор
    Розглянуто п’ять сфер суспільного життя, в яких наявна філософія: інтелектуальна культура та ерудиція людини, внутрішній світ людини, освіта, наука та державні програми і рішення. Констатовано, що в означених сферах філософія втратила свій авторитет. Застосовано метод порівняльного аналізу. Перспективи дослідження: як філософія має допомогти сучасній людині самовизначитися. The article deals with acute issues related to the state of modern philosophy and its place in modern society on background of the common thesis about the death of philosophy or exhaustion of its creative resources. The author elaborates on the theme by analyzing five major spheres of public life in which presence of philosophy is obvious and traditional: it is intellectual culture and erudition of the person, interior individual world of a man, education, science and governmental programs and solutions. The article states that in all these spheres philosophy has lost its weight and authority, in most cases in these spheres it is not considered as important and necessary. Particularly, in the field of education the volume of the study of philosophy has been substantially narrowed, in the field of science complex and controversial questions deterred scientists from philosophy, and government administration and creators of social programs often regard to philosophy with blatant irony. In the field of scientific knowledge and engineering solutions, thesis that science is itself a philosophy remains acceptable. The author believes that philosophy should return to its main vocation, and will help a modern person to define themselves in extremely difficult conditions of modern life. The article is based on methods of comparative analysis, unity of the historical and the logical. Positive prospects for philosophy, according to the author, are connected with its refusal of the role of maintenance in different spheres of activity and with awakening in a person of impulses to self-cognition and self-improvement.
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    Місце трансцендентного у класичній та некласичній теорії пізнання
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Федорів, Любомир
    Досліджено проблему пізнання. Розкрито особливості класичного та некласичного підходів до розуміння пізнання, а також проаналізовано форми виявлення трансцендентного в контексті його розгляду. На основі проведеного аналізу робиться висновок про те, що в разі переходу від класичної до некласичної філософії трансцендентне втрачає статус вихідного чинника та форми фіксації і здійснення пізнавальних актів. Thearticle researches some issues of classical and non-classical approaches to understanding of cognition. The author examines perculiarities of classical and non-classical understanding of knowledge subject, cognition object and cognition process as a whole. In this contest displays of the transcendental were analyzed. The problem of transcendental is one of the most important in philosophical agenda. It determines main features of methodology and content of exclusively philosophical discourse. Attention to the problem of the transcendental from foreign philosophical community and its topicality brings up necessity of new investigations in the context of history of philosophy. Following this fact, the author has chosen such a sophisticated theme of the article. Analysing the process of the transcendental problem (both its classical and non-classical explorations), the author of the article discovered major appearing forms of transcendental in the history of philosophy and philosophy in general. Scientific innovation may be seen in breeding major models of the transcendental (derived from classical and non-classical philosophy): ontological model, epistemological, ontoepistemological, and subjectivist understanding of the transcendental as separate acts of human consciousness. Upon results of the research the author of the article has come to a conclusion, that, on its way from classical to nonclassical philosophy, the transcendental loses ontological and substantial status and appears in separate acts of our human consciousness (without this we cannot contact reality). From this point of view, we observe regular process caused by tendencies of non-classical and especially present-day philosophy, which declines any objective and substantial absolute. This article makes a few steps to understanding of place and status of transcendental in present-day philosophy. It brings about questions of the absolute and the ideal, necessity of metaphysics in general. These issues require deep analysis and offer wide range of perspectives for further research.
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    Концептуалізація відносин “Людина – держава” в лібералізмі (Рецензія на монографію Сичивица О. М. Либерал-рестрикционизм и архитектоника гармонического мира: Историософско-политологический трактат / Олег Сичивица. – Львов: Каменяр, 2013. – 1220 с.)
    (Lviv Politechnic Publіshing House, 2016) Гетьманчук, Микола; Сіромська, Ганна
    Досліджено комплексний аналіз ідеології, динаміку методології цивілізаційного будівництва – як в ретроспективі, так і в перспективі. Спираючись на обширний матеріал з багатьох галузей знань – від філософії історії та політології до юриспруденції, фізики, медицини і богослов’я, – до уваги читача подано критичний аналіз марксистсько-комуністичної і ліберально-буржуазної стратегії глобалізаційного процесу, розкритиковано мондіалізм і обґрунтовано ідею кластерно-гармонійного комунізму, який містить оптимальну цивілізаційну перспективу сучасного людства. Видання адресоване спеціалістам у галузі політології, філософії історії, а також широкому колу державно-політичних діячів, усім достатньо освіченим, думаючим, відповідальним людям, які небайдужі до історичної долі людства і його цивілізаційної перспективи. The study is devoted to the complex analysis of ideology, dynamics of civilization construction methodology, both in retrospect and in the future. On the basis of extensive materials from many fields of knowledge – from history of philosophy and political science to jurisprudence, physics, medicine and theology – the work presents critical analysis of Marxist-Communist and liberal-bourgeois strategy of globalization process, blames mondializm and justifies the idea of cluster-harmonious communism, which is an optimal civilizational perspective of modern society. The publication is addressed to specialists in the field of political science, philosophy, history, and a wide range of public and political personalities, all sufficiently educated, thoughtful, responsible people who care about the historical fate of mankind and its civilization prospects.