Інтенсифікація забудови історично сформованого міста (на прикладі Львова)

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Date

2018-02-26

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Видавництво Львівської політехніки

Abstract

Розглянуто процес інтенсифікації міської території історично сформованого міста. Проаналізовано спроби інтенсифікувати квартали житлової забудови у різні періоди. Наведено визначення показників щільності. Прослідковано урбаністичні трансформації міської тканини, що впливають на зміни показників щільності та взаємозалежність між ними.
The urbanization processes of recent decades have been active in shaping of the urban environment and the image of a modern city. Significant intensification of the way of life of people also leads to an increase in the density of the city in its various manifestations. Cities of the metropolitan nature, such as Lviv, are maximally intensified within their existing boundaries, taking into account the potential of both the formed urban structure and degraded or undeveloped territories. In connection with the crisis phenomena of 1990s and the decline of the economy of the Soviet model,a special impulse of development was given to the areas designated in general plans of cities for re-urbanization measures such as post-industrial, long-standing warehouse zones, transport service areas, territories of military units and warehouses, cooperative gardens and garages, etc. However, today's urbanization processes are intensively tied to existing infrastructure that meets the standards and creates a comfortable environment for living. Modernization of cities and intensification of construction in conditions of high market competition causes an increase in urban density. City density (compactness) is a term used for urban development and urban planning, and takes into account the number of people who inhabit this urbanized area. The density of cities is considered an important factor in understanding of the functioning of cities. City density surveys are carried in various spheres, including economics, health, innovation, psychology and geography, as well as sustainable development. It is generally believed that cities with higher density are more stable than cities with low density. Density idicator is widely used in urban planning practice (in general plans, rules of land use and development, land development projects, etc.), which characterizes the intensity of the use of territories. Transformations are especially vividly traced in the historical urban environment. The study of the change in the density index is conducted on the example of Lviv residential development areas of different periods. In Lviv, very dense building was observed in the city center, as well as in quarters outside the walls, which were formed during the regulation of Lviv's development by the Austrian administration in the first half of the 19th century The growth of the status of Lviv influenced the intensification of the construction process in the city, which accelerated considerably in the 19th century, and the number of inhabitants gradually increased. From the 2nd half of the 19th century, before World War 1, a construction boom was observed in Lviv, accompanied by the spreading of urban development in the suburbs. The size of the building increased too - primarily in the number of the storeys and the size of the neighborhoods. In the interwar period in Lviv, construction was formed under the influence of functionalism, and in the periphery of the city the principles of the garden city were used, which affected the reduction of the density of the building and the creation of a comfortable environment. Lviv suffered the greatest crisis during the Second World War, when burgers of Jewish nationality were eliminated, Polish - resettled, and Ukrainian - subjected to repression. The population of Lviv resumed only in the 1970s due to its transformation of it into an industrial center, which also resulted in its territorial growth. The construction of a new mass housing, based on the principles of modernism on the principles of strict rationing, adopted for the entire USSR was applied. The General plan of 1970 predicted an increase in the number of inhabitants to 1 million in the 2000s. The period of independence began on the background of a protracted economic crisis, and the new construction was intensified only in the last decade. Today in Lviv a process of intensification of construction of the territory of the city on selected sites is observed, which is due to increasing of the density and storey surface of the new building. Often, new residential complexes are not large-scale for a person's perception and affect the quality of the urban environment. Therefore, it is important, taking into account historical experience, to determine the optimal indicators of the density of the urban environment. The number of available population in Lviv, according to estimates, as of April 1, 2016 reached to 757.2 thousand people. In 2016, in Lviv (including Vynnyky, Bryukhovychi and Rudno satellites), residential buildings with a total area of 475.4 thousand square meters were put into operation. 55.3 % of the general housing of the region was introduced in Lviv, and 633.3 sq.m. of total housing area was built per 1000 inhabitants of the city. Such volumes of housing construction require the active development of infrastructure and an increase in the number of service facilities. This approach leads to the following changes: density of construction; load on transport infrastructure; additional load on engineering networks; increase in the number of sources of noise pollution; air pollution; visual pollution; closure of production; spontaneous building in suburban green areas; the decline of the natural landscape under anthropogenic influence; social and domestic conflicts. Intensification of the urban environment during the period of growth of urbanization should take into account the needs of the city, take into account its problems and maintain the concept of sustainable development. Formation of developmental neighborhoods should be considered in the city context and create a good urban environment. Even more responsible task is to find approaches to the intensification of historic cities, especially their central parts

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Keywords

міська забудова, урбанізація, щільність, інтенсифікація, urban development, urbanization, density, intensification

Citation

Черкес Б. С. Інтенсифікація забудови історично сформованого міста (на прикладі Львова) / Б. С. Черкес, Г. П. Петришин, С. І. Коник // Вісник Національного університету “Львівська політехніка”. Серія: Архітектура. — Львів : Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2018. — № 893. — С. 129–138. — (Містобудування).