Створення та діяльність більшовицьких військ в Україні в кінці 1918 – 1929 роках у сучасній історіографії

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Видавництво Львівської політехніки
У загальних рисах проаналізовано основні здобутки сучасної української історіографії в дослідженні становлення та діяльності військ Червоної армії на території України в кінці 1918 – 1920 роках. Modern Ukrainian historiography of Ukrainian National Revolution (1917–1921) has been presented by hundreds of research papers, theses, monographs that covervarious aspects of that age. The vast majority of works concern the problems that until 1991 were suppressed, falsified an derased from the memory of society. Clearly there is a need in scientific reappraisal of the establishment of Bolshevik government history, bothin general and in detail. It comprises new problems and aspects that were not consideredin Soviet historiography, suppressed or distorted. The reappraisal and new scientific publications should be based on modern methodological approaches, sources, factsetc. According to historian V.Verstyuk “Ukrainian historians practically stopped to study the history of Bolshevism. This is very interesting phenomen on that... was not examined critically” [1, p. 129]. The aim of the article is to determine the general state of researchin modern Ukrainian historiography the formation an dactivities of the Red Army against the forces of the UNR in the end of 1918 – 1920. The modern historiography refers to scientific researches that have been issued since independence. In general the historiography of this problem is divided into two groups. Works that briefly concider this perspective, as well as those that are directly related to current military events in Ukraine of 1918–1920. The first group include monographs written by S.Kulchytskyy, M.Doroshko and G.Kuriy. S. Kulchytskyy under the scheme of communismin Ukraine is considering the problem of “military and political alliance” between Bolshevik Russia and Ukrainian Soviet government. M.Doroshko raises the general questions about coming of Bolsheviks’ regime. The value of H.Kuriy’s monographis in collected and summarized factual material that refers to G. Petrovskyy’s activities, who was involved in the military and political processes of that time. V.Verstyuk’s publication “Ukrainian Revolution: metaphors, object, interpretation” motivated to write the article. These condgroup is presented by monographs of V.Verstyuk, V.Kuzmenko and A.Rukkas, V.Savchenko’s scientific and popular publication, the sis researches of O.Bozhko and O.Chihradze. In addition to N. Makhno’s military units that were apart of Bolshevik forces, V.Verstyuk’s monograph presentsa number of legitimate critical views about the military and political alliance, the formation and activities of the Red Army. V.Kuzmenko’s scientific paper considers the specificity of state building in the USSR, where the focus of attention on the attitude of the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the Ukrainian Soviet Army is especially interesting. A.Rukkas describesin details the condition of Soviet troops and the major battles that were held on the territory of Ukraine during th e Ukrainian-Polish-Soviet War in 1920, as well as directly against the UNR’s troop sin November of that year. That paper is the latest significant achievement in Ukrainian militaryhistory. The thesis presented by O.Bozhko did not lose its relevance because it is the only comprehensive work about the Ukrainian Soviet Army before the military and political union of 1919. In O.Chihradze’s work there are presented schemes of the Bolshevik forces structure, comparison of the warring parties’ military capability, ethnic composition is mentioned and other issues are considered. Scientific and popular book written by V.Savchenko is an achievement of historiography. The structure of the book shows the author has thorough knowledge in the topic of military events in Ukraine during 1917 – 1921. However V.Savchenko avoid the implication of archival documents and links for the scientific apparatus on which his work is based. In general, the problem of Ukrainian Soviet Army, and later Bolshevik forces that have been operating in Ukraine did not become the subject of a separate research in modern Ukrainian historiography. Every of the mentioned researches who worked in it sown field during scientific analysis draws attention to the different aspects of military construction, military activities of the armed forces of the Ukrainian Soviet government and the institutions that are under its controll. In analyzed works the historians raise the question of chronological boundaries of the military actions, compare strength and combat cap ability the of warring armies, tactical and strategic principles of the activities and others. The combination of these aspects shows that inmodern historiography, onthe background of a large number of works about military construction of the UNR and fight on various fronts, there was formed a common vision for the establishment and activities of the main enemy camp in 1917–1921 years – the Red Army.
Червона армія, Україна, історіографія, більшовизм, the Red army, Ukraine, historiography, bolshevism
Хома І. Я. Створення та діяльність більшовицьких військ в Україні в кінці 1918 – 1929 роках у сучасній історіографії / І. Я. Хома // Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". – 2014. – № 784 : Держава та армія. – С. 114–119. – Бібліографія: 11 назв.