Історична фортеця “Окопи Святої трійці” на Тернопільщині

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Видавництво Львівської політехніки


У дослідженні представлено маловідомий фортифікаційний об’єкт “Окопи Святої Трійці”, який був зведений у XVII ст. на території сучасного с. Окопи, Борщівського району, Тернопільської області. Унікальність об’єкта полягає у його розташуванні на вузькому перешийку із стрімкими скелястими берегами, у межиріччі, недалеко від впадіння р. Збруч у р. Дністер. Розкрито особливості колишнього стратегічного військового об’єкта, представлено його етапи розвитку від періоду закладення до сучасного стану. Проведено ідентифікацію збережених цінних елементів колишньої фортеці та виконано теоретичну реконструкцію її первісної планувальної структури. Запропоновано ідеї щодо представлення, охорони та збереження існуючих фрагментів історичної фортеці. In this article one of the little-known fortificated objects, called Okopy of the Holy Trinity, is represented. This fortress was erected in the XVII century on the territory of modern village Okopy, situated near town Borshchiv in Ternopil region. Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski (crown hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Marcin Kazimierz Kątski (voivode of Kyiv) - are known as the founders of this stronghold. The authorship of the project is ascribed to the famous Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren. The uniqueness of this object is hidden in its location on a narrow isthmus surrounded by a rapid rocky shores, between two rivers - Zbruch and Dnister. The fortress consisted of two lines of defense. The structure of the eastern line of defense consisted of: two demi-bastions, one bastion, ravelin and the gate (called “Kamjanetska”). The structure of the western line includes: two demi-bastions, ravelin and the gate (called “Lvivska”). The features of the former strategic military object and stages of its development are also presented in this article. Castle reached its greatest prosperity in the beginning of XVIII century - after receiving the status of the “city”, but after arriving of Austrian Empire the fortress finally collapsed. In this article we defined that fortification system Okopy of the Holy Trinity belongs to old Dutch military engineering school. We can find using of such type of fortification in famous objects dated XVII - XVIII centuries, we are talking about Stanislaviv, Brody, Czestochowa. The most interesting of analogous objects is fortress Mariampil situated in Galician district of Ivano-Frankivsk region, which was built in the late XVIIc. by Jan Jabłonowski. The most interesting related features, that assimilated these two objects, are unique natural local conditions combined with bastion fortifications, that were used both in Okopy and in Mariampil as a major defense measures. At this stage of development, we have partially preserved fragments of two entrance gates, fully preserved fragment of guard tower, fragments of bastions and curtain walls are saved in the form of significant differences of relief. Nowadays, the former valuable historical fortress has no conservation status, for this reason, all preserved fragments are going to ruin. While our research work we made an identification of the surviving elements of the former fortress and implemented theoretical reconstruction of its original planning structure. We also presented ideas concerning protection and preservation of existing historical fragments of the fortress. Also we considered examples of successful marking, museumification and exhibiting of the former defense complexes in Europe. An important aspect of the protection, conservation and adaptation of valuable historic fortification complex involves in joining them to the existing popular tourist ways and programs. Given the fact that a former fortress Okopy of the Holy Trinity is located nearby the famous tourist attractions: the castle in Khotyn and the fortress in Kamjanets-Podilsky, for this reason the inclusion of the object to the tourism program of the region enables to promote this historical complex and helps in its protection and preservation.



історична фортеця, бастіонна лінія оборони, реконструкція, ревалоризація, охорона історико-архітектурної спадщини, historical fortress, bastion line of defense, reconstruction, revalorization, protection of historical and architectural heritage


Лукомська З. В. Історична фортеця “Окопи Святої трійці” на Тернопільщині / З. В. Лукомська // Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". Серія: Архітектура. – 2016. – № 856. – С. 178–185. – Бібліографія: 13 назв.