Архітектура. – 2016. – №856

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Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка"

У збірнику наукових праць опубліковано результати науково-дослідних робіт професорсько-викладацького складу Інституту архітектури Національного університету “Львівська політехніка”, а також архітектурних шкіл інших вищих навчальних закладів. У публікаціях розглянуто актуальні проблеми теорії та практики у галузі архітектури, містобудування і дизайну. Для студентів, аспірантів, докторантів, наукових, науково-педагогічних працівників та спеціалістів, які працюють у галузі архітектури.

Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". Серія: Архітектура : збірник наукових праць / Міністерство освіти і науки України, Національний університет "Львівська політехніка ; голова редакційно-видавничої ради Н. І. Чухрай. – Львів : Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016. – № 856. – 243 с. : іл.


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    Зміст до Вісника Серія: Архітектура № 856
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016)
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    In memoriam Ігоря Івановича Середюка
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Проскуряков, В. І.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Робота присвячена пам’яті одного з яскравих представників Львівської архітектурно школи професора І. І. Середюка. The article is dedicated to the memory of one of the brightest representatives of the Lviv School of Architecture Professor I. I. Seredyuk.
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    У міському просторі: життя і діяльність професора Б. С. Посацького
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Петришин, Г. П.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Окреслено основні життєві віхи професора Б. С. Посацького та становлення його як видатної науково-педагогічної особистості. Оцінено його внесок у розвиток урбаністичної наукової теорії та науково-методичний доробок. Вказано роль професора Б. С. Посацького у формуванні наукової думки та практичної діяльності на розвиток міського простору. Bogdan Posatskyy was born in Rzeszów on June 19, 1942. In June, 1946, after the World War II, he and his family moved to the Lviv city. In 1959 Bogdan Posatskyy finished the high school № 8 and entered the Lviv Polytechnic Institute. In 1961 in Lviv Polytechnic Institute the full-time education and specialty “architecture” at the department of architectural design (then still a part of Engineering and Building Department) was restored. Architecture students were involved in the design of the new Polytechnic objects at Student Design Bureau (SDB). At this time the first educational building and new generation of student dormitories were intensively designed under the guidance of Professor O. I. Selastelnikov and Ptof. V. D. Sydorenko. In September, 1965, after graduation from Lviv Polytechnic Institute, Bogdan Posatskyy started to work as an architect in Lviv’s affiliate of the Ukrainian Research and Design Institute of Agriculture under the guidance of an experienced architect A. I. Bahmatova, who was the graduate of Leningrad Academy of Arts. They were engaged in design of objects which had to supplement preferable the existing historically formed urban fabric of the city. In 1967 he entered the graduate school of Lviv Polytechnic Institute and defended his PhD thesis titled “Historical and architectural complexex in ensemble solving of modern cities (on example of the socialistic reconstruction of small and medium sized cities in the western regions of the USSR)”, under the guidance of PhD. A. M. Rudnuckyy. In 1972 he defended his PhD thesis in Vilnius Civil Engineering Institute. From 1970 Bogdan Posatskyy began his scientific and pedagogical work as assistant of architectural design department, which was the part of EBD. The Architectural Department at Lviv Polytechnic Institute was renewed in 1971, at the same time with Urban Planning Department. At the Urban Planning Department Posatskyy Bogdan went from assistant (1971–1975 years.), senior lecturer (1975–1978 years), associate professor (1978–1993 years.) to professor in 1993. In 2003 he was awarded the academic status: the professor of urban planning department. In 1972 Bogdan Posatskyy was admitted to the National Union of Architects of Ukraine. While working at the Urban Planning Department, Bogdan Posatskyy is constantly engaged in the scientific study of the problems of historical cities urban planning reconstruction of the western region, and highlights his vision in numerous articles and presentations at scientific conferences. In 1982 the associate professor Bogdan Posatskyy was elected as the Chair of Urban Planning Department and re-elected to this post in 1987. During the 1980 and early 1990s, the department staff was working on the state budget scientific theme “The problems of integrated management of the urban environment, the formation of urban development, planning and construction of residential and industrial areas.” At the same time in the 1986-1990 under the leadership of Bogdan Posatskyy the department had performed a complex target program of Ministry of Education of the USSR “Integrated development planning, development and improvement of the city”. The Department intensified its efforts with scientific personnel training. Under the direction of Bogdan Posatskyy the following PhD thesises were defended: I. Ya. Chernyak – “Architectural and planning organization of rural agricultural enterprises (on the example of the western region of the USSR)", graduate student from Syria M. Z. Malla – “Architecture and planning reconstruction of historical destricts of the largest Syria’s cities.”, in 2005 H. R. Kharchuk defended her thesis titled: “Formation of Truskavets architecture in the XIX – early XX century (on the example of resort buildings)”. From 1983–1989 at the Urban Planning Department the Research laboratory № 17 was acting under the scientific and methodological guidance of Bogdan Posatskyy. It performed the economic-contractual scientific themes commissioned by institutions and organizations. Bogdan Posatskyy understood the traditions of Lviv architectural school, which has always been known for advanced methods of teaching and he also was aware of the need to teach students in their native language. At the end of 1970 Bogdan Posatskyy begins to write and publicate the methodological literature, the most important one is tutorial “Urban Bases” wich was republished few times and won the recognition of educators and architects of ukrainian universities. The recognition of his outstanding contributions to Ukrainian architectural architectural education and science has been reflected in his election in 1994 as corresponding member of the Ukrainian Academy of Architecture. During the last decades he is considering a scientific problem of the mutual influence and the overall development of culture and urban structures of the second half of XX century in Western Ukraine. Certain steps of his work were published, particularly, in the Notes of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. The theoretical understanding of problem of the urban space and cultural phenomena interaction was highligheted in the following book: “The City Space and Urban Culture (at the turn of XX–XXI century), Lviv, 2007 and the fundamental collective monograph: “The architecture of Lviv city. “Time and style XIII–XXI c.”, Lviv, 2008. In 2011 Bogdan Posatskyy was honored by his election as a Fellow of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Architecture and Urban Planning Commission, because of his important and multifaceted contributions into the development of Ukrainian architectural science. After the proclamation of the Ukrainian independence, Bogdan Posatskyy was one of the first who started to cooperate with colleagues from architectural schools of Poland. From 1995 he is a member of the International Society of urban planning (UK). Since student years Bohdan Posatskyy has been involved in the architecture and landscape photography. Numerous official delegations and guests who have been visiting Lviv Polytechnic have been getting acquainted with the architecture of the main building of historical and architectural heritage and modernity of the city through the lectures and excursions of Bogdan Posatskyy. In 2016 for significant personal achievements in the development of independent Ukraine, Posatskyy Bogdan Stepanovych – Professor of Urban Planning Department of the Institute of Architecture of the Lviv Polytechnic National University was awarded by the President of Ukraine – with the anniversary medal “25 years of independence of Ukraine”.
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    Проблеми та перспективи зовнішньої реклами в історичному Львові
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Швед, О.; Попович, О.; Лотошинська, Н.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Розробити концепцію творення зовнішнього рекламного оформлення історичної частини міста, яке б відповідало сучасним вимогам дизайну, ергономіки, урбаністики та естетики міського простору. На основі досліджень спроектовано та запропоновано альтернативні варіанти існуючих рекламних вивісок з візуалізацією на архітектурному об’єкті у межах історико-архітектурного заповідника Львова. In conditions of overwhelming information space by various advertising carriers in huge number and size of outdoor advertising media in Ukraine especially in large cities usually exceeds the appropriate amount creating additional information pressure. The concept of creation urban outdoor advertising design must comply with the modern requirements of design, ergonomics, urbanism and aesthetics of city space, where outdoor advertising, visual information and urban environment form the unified harmonious ensemble. Each element of the advertising carrier should be an integral part of the aesthetic design of advertising information and be on a high level of design decisions. Furthermore, there are normative acts provided by the laws of Ukraine, which regulates principles and rules for outdoor advertising in the city. Moreover, it is important to understand that the task of designers involved in the creation of advertising in the historic environment or building, is to avoid of creating visual time dissonance. At the current stage of research and development of advertising for the historic city center raises the question of professional approach and consideration of European experience in setting up the historic area of the city, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Generally, the information concerning the study of specific placement of advertising signs or constructions are mainly artistic or architectural, while informational advertising component, which would include iconographic, analytical and stylistic analysis to create advertising that would harmoniously combined form, content and style with the historic atmosphere of the city are either superficial or generally ignored. Actually, this is the scientific novelty of the chosen subject. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm of creating outdoor advertising for the historical city center on the example of designing alternative advertising signs that meet with the modern design principles, municipal advertising laws and respect for their historic context. While designing the outdoor advertising on a historic building the developers’ priority of design solution should be the examples of first advertising, which was installed at the site of the future of design. In order to determine this, it is necessary to explore the history of advertising on the site. For this purpose could be used any source: archives, libraries, internet-museums, etc. The investigation of architectural analogues enables to compensate the absence or lack of photographic materials that would allow to thoroughly study the history of advertising on the studied architectural heritage and, in the absence of earlier advertising on it. Analysis of advertising typographic graphics samples of ХІХ–ХХ century allows to determine the characteristics and aspects of its use in modern design advertising in the historic environment. The study of color advertising is also one of the main priorities in the design in historical city. Considering that the above presented studies due to technology state at the time did not convey full information about historical advertising, such as color and shades of advertising, there is an urgent need to appeal to the iconographic research. Having investigated and evaluated the problem, conducted research summarized in the developed algorithm of creating an urban outdoor advertising design.Structuring the necessary material for making advertising signs that implemented by developed algorithm and its visualization in an assembled catalogue allowing to lay the foundation of outdoor advertising considering the status of the city as a World Heritage property.
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    Флоральні мотиви в архітектурі модерну Харкова
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Коровкіна, Г. А.; Харківський національний університет міського господарства ім. О. М. Бекетова
    Розглянуто флоральні мотиви декоративного оздоблення в архітектурі модерну Харкова. This article examines floral motifs within the decorative elements of Art Nouveau architecture in Kharkiv. Stages in the formation of the Art Nouveau style are examined, as well as its interrelationship with the other arts. Of significant influence on the architecture of this period are the fine arts, theatrical performances and poetry. Art Nouveau architecture not only consolidates the achievements of these arts, but also those of manufacturing, and even the chemical industries. The author draws attention to the lack of existing research regarding the natural decorative motifs in the artistic conception of Kharkiv’s Art Nouveau architecture. Particular attention is drawn to several species of flora, whose prevalence in decorative motifs unites buildings of this style. Façades featuring chamomile flowers and daisies, executed in a number of techniques, are examined in detail. The inclusion of the sunflower, as a generalised representation of the flower head, is also reviewed. The chamomile flower, in this case, is taken to include all types of this plant, ranging from its medicinal species to its more common meadow variant. Imagery of the chamomile attracted a large number of artists and poets, as well as architects. The daisy, which may be viewed as a variety of the chamomile, has the Latin name bellus, meaning beautiful or fair. Depictions of this plant, with its elegant flower heads, symbolised peace and well-being. Images of the sunflower were likely used in reference to its abundance in producing of a large number of seeds, and thus represented prosperity and the improvement of living standards. As a result of the research undertaken, the author finds a significant number of buildings which depict the laurel, which, unlike the chamomile, is not native to Kharkiv. However, by drawing a historical analogy, the laurel wreath can be understood to symbolise victory and triumph. Its image is preserved in numerous monuments, where it crowns the temples of triumphant warriors, emperors and military leaders. In these cases, this symbol was used to represent grandeur, prominence and solemnity. Laurel wreaths were similarly presented to successful sportsmen, to singers and to poets. As a decorative element, the laurel is used in wreaths, garlands, ironwork and other architectural features. Other decorative floral elements in Kharkiv’s Art Nouveau architecture are also reviewed, among them roses, irises, bouquets and garlands. The author examines the floral themes in the Art Nouveau architecture of Kharkiv as an idiosyncratic regional feature, presenting and analysing particular characteristics of decorative floral motifs, and commenting upon the commitment of certain architects to particular botanic elements. As a result of this research, the author offers a classification of floral elements in the appearance of Art Nouveau buildings, presenting the interrelationship between their conceptual content and the objective of the building.
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    Міські герби в оздобленні фасадів будівель міста Львова
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Цюпа, М. С.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Проаналізовано геральдичний декор, що зображає герб міста на фасадах будівель Львова. На основі власних емпіричних досліджень та фотофіксації збережених у Львові зразків геральдичного декору проаналізовано історичний аспект формування та застосування гербів в архітектурі. Описано стильові особливості розвитку геральдичного декору та проведено класифікацію геральдичного декору. In the article analyzed heraldic decoration depicting a coat of arms on the facades of Lviv’s buildings. We describe stylistic features of heraldic decoration, described the classification of materials and classification heraldic decoration. Works of heraldic décor historically and artistically represent the epoch of their creation. Heraldric compositions is the symbols of the city or the founders of various buildings and facilities constitute an integral part of Lviv architecture. Lviv emblem is one of the oldest Ukrainian city signs. The emblem depicts a lion which is a major figure and a symbol of the city. The coat of arms of the city of Lviv features a golden lion beneath a city gate in a blue field. The lion was a traditional symbol of the city throughout the ages. Initially it was used as a seal in the court. The first such depictions occurred on 13th-century seals. The earliest known emblem of the city features a lion passant through a city gate pointed with three towers. It was featured on a city council seals, used by the magistrate in 1359 and later. In 1526 Polish king Sigismund the Old of Poland formally accepted the coat of arms. After the capture of the Kingdom of Poland Lviv city began to use the mark on flags, facades of the buildings, books, in trade and so on. In 1586 bishop Jan Dymitr Sulikowski,royal diplomat and a bishop of Lwów, as the city was called back then, was accepted on an audience by the Pope Sixtus V. The emblem of the city has changed over the years, new pieces were added, but in the center of the composition there always was a lion at the gate. In this form it was preserved till our times. At present a great deal of works of heraldic décor on the facades of Lviv buildings need restoration. Restoration of the old city sign gave rise to a new stage of Ukrainian municipal heraldry. Analyzing saved emblems can be divided into three groups: The first group includes heraldic composition XVII. This signs are made of stone and placed in homes and other buildings; the second is the heraldic composition placed on educational institutions, mainly schools and gymnasiums, made in the XIX century. third heraldic composition is placed on the administrative and public buildings XVIII–XX centuries. Based on field research revealed that the heraldic composition belonging to the first group are made of stone, the herb are placed on a round disk with Latin inscriptions or laurel wreath. Stone emblems placed on the walls of apartment buildings on the 13 Serbian St., and 28, 36 Staroevreyska St. Heraldic composition belonging to the second group, placed on the facade of the Gothic schools on boards or cartouche with curls. They include former female school of Queen Jadwiga on 10 Shevchenko Pr., School St. Anne on 2 Leontovych. St., former school of A. Mickiewicz on 15 Theatralna St., former City School of Tadeusz Chatsky on 10 Tamanska St., School of Bartholomew Zimorovycha on 171 Lychakivska St., formerly School of Nicholas Ray on 6 Chornovola Pr., a former female professional school on the 8–10 Zelena St., the former Industrial School on 47 Snopkivska St., a former school of Piramovych on 17 Pidvalna st., school of Stashytsya on the 45 Lesya Ukrayinka st. The herbs belonging to the third group placed on administrative and public buildings, it is a Town Hall of Lviv on 1 Runok Sq., Fire Strantion on 6 Pidvalna st., the National Museum on 10 Liberty Pr., Central Station house on 1 Dvirceva Sq., the former home of the Chamber of Commerce in 17–19 Shevchenko Pr., Lviv department of civil registration on 157 Franko St. Heraldic compositions located on the pediments, walls or above the main entrance. Some heraldic composition of this group are decorated with sculptural design. After analyzing the principles of conservation of architecture and heraldic decoration in Europe and Lviv, we can say that the heradicl decoration is an integral part of the buildings, historical monuments and the art. Preservation of monuments is an important task because today a lot of buildings, areas and samples of decoration on the facades of Lviv buildings need restoration.
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    Чинники формування оборонних споруд монастирів Західної України у XVII–XVIII ст.
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Рибчинський, О. В.; Хохонь, М. П.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Опрацьовано чинники, що впливали на розвиток та формування укріплень монастирів у XVII–XVIII ст. Монастирі та їхні захисні редути завжди відігравали роль активних домінант у просторі. Проте з плином часу сформований архітектурний образ руйнується. Фахове вивчення цієї проблематики розкриває раніше не відомі аспекти існування та окреслює перспективи функціонування монастирських комплексів. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries monastic complexes had reliable fortifications, which were developed according to the newest requisites of the times. Most of the monasteries lost their ecclesiastical, religional, scientifical, cultural, and artistic roles during the twentieth century; this became the reason of their decline and gradual decay. Today, many monasteries gradually restore their original roles of spiritual havens. However, the fortifications which are essential parts of their architectural image are not protected and are in decay. In this article we present monasteries of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which were founded both inside city walls and included in the city fortification systems, and outside cities and constructed on highlands or lowlands. As a result of the analysis it was possible do discern that the monasteries located on plains or lowlands had regular fortifications, while the ones on highlands had irregular fortifications. In some monastic complexes due to development of architectural and engineering thought, and also due to political and administrative factors, developed fortification systems arose. Correctly chosen location for a monastery was a helpful factor for defence. Hills, rivers, and swampy territories were natural defensive elements. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries three categories of monastic complexes evolved: 1) monasteries on highlands, 2) monasteries on plains, 3) monasteries on lowlands. Monasteries on highlands were the most common. Such complexes are present in Pidkamin, Pochaiv, Yazlivets, Berezhany, Lviv (Discalced Carmelites, Benedictine Nuns, Missionaries, Reformats Orders), Monastyrok. Monasteries on plain territories had regular layout and were located inside city walls (in Bohorodchany, Variazh, Husiatyn, Zhovkva, Zbarazh, Leshniv, Rohatyn, Sambir (both Bernardine and Dominican). The least common were the ones located on lowlands. Among these are the abodes in Yezupil, Mariampil, Lviv (Bernardine), Terebovlia, Univ, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Maniava, the ones in Chernyliawa and Shchyplotiv do not exist today. As a rule, monasteries were located near main roads: either inside or outside city walls. Among the complexes located outside of the urban structures, and near local roads, are the ones in Dobromyl, Zavaliv, Lviv (Benedictine Nuns, Reformats), the Maniavskyi Skyt, Vitsyn, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Sokal (Bernardine). Among the monasteries located near the main road inside city walls or right next to city fortifications, are the abodes in Berezhany, Belz, Bohorodchany, Zhovkva (Dominican), Zbarazh, Leshniv, Mariampil, Rohatyn, Lviv (Bernardine). Such monasteries were included in the city fortification systems and were located next to the city gates. Monastic complexes located near main roads next to the city walls, usually played the role of outposts, so they had to be placed on hills. These are Pidkamin monastery, Pochaiv, Peremyshliany, Yazlivets, Lviv (Basilian, Carmelite), Sambir (Jesuit, Bridgettine), and Sokal (Bridgettine). During the history, the monasteries played an active and important role in the spread of the Holy Scripture, in the development of education, and in the defence of the borders of the state. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries monasteries on plains were founded inside city walls and were included into the cities’ defensive systems. Monasteries outside city limits were constructed on hills or on lowlands. Monasteries located on plain territories or on lowlands, had regular fortification systems. The ones on hills got irregular fortifications that depended much on the present landscape. Monasteries with developed fortifications were extraordinary; they had significant political and administrative factors influence them, as well as the architectural and engineering achievements of the time.
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    Принципи ревалоризації архітектурного ансамблю Василіанського монастиря Преображення Господнього під Бучачем Тернопільської області
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Ремешило-Рибчинська, О. І.; Знак, І. Б.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Визначено основні принципи ревалоризації архітектурних ансамблів монастирів Чину Святого Василія Великого (ЧСВВ) та показано їх використання у процесі розроблення проекту відновлення монастирського ансамблю Преображення Господнього під Бучачем Тернопільської області. At its core, the monastery of St. Basil the Great – is the main form of monasticism. Architecturally they are the complete ensembles of historic, cultural, architectural and artistic value and belong to the historical and architectural heritage of the Ukrainian people. To this day in western Ukraine more than 100 ensembles of monasteries of St. Basil the Great have reached with partially preserved churches, monastery buildings, gardens and parks. However, over the centuries, due to the different historical and political factors, most of these bands were subjected to destruction, and compositional integrity affected by major changes undergone some partial and total destruction and as a result they lost their value in modern society. Unfortunately, they are as objects of study, are still out of sight of restoration science, but they have historical artistic and cultural value. In order to save these architectural monuments back to life, it is necessary to continue to use them, which, of course, involves some modernization and adaptation processing of individual elements with a focus on the needs of modern society. Nowadays it is the actual definition of the basic principles of revalorization of monastic ensembles of St. Basil the Great for processing based on the means of implementation. This will be the basis of their application to restore spatial content of monastic ensembles, which in their turn contribute to the socioeconomic development of the territory and increase their value in modern society. If we want to breathe new life into the building, the only one of the restoration will not be enough, because the monastery ensemble - a harmonious unification residential buildings, commercial and sacred purpose of landscape areas that are formed on the basis of the Order of St. Basil the Great that aesthetically inscribed in landscape. They need the new approaches to their current use. Revalorization (from the French. Revalorisation – the return of the lost value) - an activity designed to bring the real monument to the state in which it is possible to complete perception memorial values. The afdaptation, on the other hand, is an important point, defined the concept of “valorization” close period “revalorization”. This term means “to confer value” or “provide value”. Revalorization of architectural ensembles involves a set of scientifically based measures to identify: the potential of their cultural, social, historical, material value within the region, in order to obtain economic benefits from their recovery and creation of tourism infrastructure; degree of preservation and reproduction of their desired weight authentic functional structure, architectural and artistic image of the historic landscape. For example the project design of reconstruction defense of monastery complex of Transfiguration in Buchach in Ternopil region with usageof it as pilgrimage center, formed new approaches to the use of modern monastery of St. Basil the Great. We also determined the main principles such as the principle of preserving the integrity of borders, preserving the principle of the historical landscape, preservation of stylistic unity principle, the principle of providing new features or interpreting the principle and the principle of rational use will contribute to the sustained movement towards giving them new life. This will be the basis of their application to restore spatial content of monastic ensembles of St. Basil the Great, which in their turn contribute to the socioeconomic development of the territory and increase their value in modern society.
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    Палацовий комплекс у с. Самчиках Хмельницької обл. – приклад класицистичної європейської архітектури кінця XVIII – початку XIX ст.
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Погранична, І. І.; Palace and park complex in Samchiki village, Khmelnitsky regione – example of classic european architecture in the end of XVIII – the first half of XIX century
    Охарактеризовано архітектурні особливості та етапи розвитку палацового комплексу у с. Самчики Хмельницької обл. Встановлено, що палацові комплекси були центральною композиційною домінантою у структурі села. Проте з розвитком поселення та недоцільним функціональним використанням палацового комплексу руйнується архітектурний образ пам’ятки та поселення загалом. Науково обґрунтовані рекомендації щодо збереження та реставрації історичної забудови класицистичних резиденцій допоможуть зберегти унікальні складові історико-культурної спадщини України. The article describes the architectural characteristics and stages of development of palace complex in the Samchiki village Khmelnitsky region. Stated, that palace complexes were central composition in the village’s structure. The high architectural and artistic level of buildings – elements of ensembles was reached through participation in their designing and decorating the most recognized and talented architects and painters of this time. One of them is the famous Polish architect Jakub Kubicky, who built a palace for Tadeusz Chatsky in Kremenets in 1805, for Peter Chechel in Samchiki during 1795–1805, for Marcin Tarnavski in Berezhtsi and others. The palace complex in the Samchiki village is very interesting. One of the characteristic features of the classic art of palace building, which is clearly reflected in the Samchiki farmstead is complexity and stylistic integrity of the entire area as a whole, when the main building is in harmony with annexes, outhouses and park surroundings. The palace complex has experienced several stages of formation and development, including: First period: beginning of the XVIII century – laying of the first buildings and a small park; Second period: XVIII - the beginning of XIX century – construction of classic architectural ensemble (architect Jakub Kubicky) and planning of the landscape of the park and gardens; Third period: the XIX century – adding a thorn hedge and laying regular park. Over the years, there were numerous alterations and extensions. However, if in the pre-revolutionary times, restructuring and redevelopment of the estate were made with the needs of owners, from the second part of the XX century all buildings without exception stylistic features and formed plan of the park, and sometimes with destruction of historic buildings, which was because of change their functionality. It happened with existing greenhouses and “garden in the walls.” Greenhouses were destroyed in their place were built a greenhouses, garages and research station. So-called “Garden in walls” was turned into a warehouse of building materials. On the territory of estate the kindergarten, research station, boiler, houses and hospital were built. The architecture not only meets the historic environment, but in general has no sign of style. Those buildings classified as dissonant buildings. Thus, the palace and park complex is part of a unique historical and architectural heritage of settlements and their stylistic and aesthetic characteristics help to preserve the authentic image of the settlements of regional and international tourism. This indicates that it is necessary to identify, consider and value popularization palace complexes in the formation of settlements. Now, there are not the best days of palace and park complex. Palace, gate, fencing and ancillary buildings need restoration and park - a radical upgrade, possibly laying the new. Nowadays, it is necessary to carry out not only restoration work, but also the reconstruction of three-dimensional structure of the palace and park complex, which is aimed to restore the whole image.
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    Історична фортеця “Окопи Святої трійці” на Тернопільщині
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Лукомська, З. В.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    У дослідженні представлено маловідомий фортифікаційний об’єкт “Окопи Святої Трійці”, який був зведений у XVII ст. на території сучасного с. Окопи, Борщівського району, Тернопільської області. Унікальність об’єкта полягає у його розташуванні на вузькому перешийку із стрімкими скелястими берегами, у межиріччі, недалеко від впадіння р. Збруч у р. Дністер. Розкрито особливості колишнього стратегічного військового об’єкта, представлено його етапи розвитку від періоду закладення до сучасного стану. Проведено ідентифікацію збережених цінних елементів колишньої фортеці та виконано теоретичну реконструкцію її первісної планувальної структури. Запропоновано ідеї щодо представлення, охорони та збереження існуючих фрагментів історичної фортеці. In this article one of the little-known fortificated objects, called Okopy of the Holy Trinity, is represented. This fortress was erected in the XVII century on the territory of modern village Okopy, situated near town Borshchiv in Ternopil region. Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski (crown hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Marcin Kazimierz Kątski (voivode of Kyiv) - are known as the founders of this stronghold. The authorship of the project is ascribed to the famous Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren. The uniqueness of this object is hidden in its location on a narrow isthmus surrounded by a rapid rocky shores, between two rivers - Zbruch and Dnister. The fortress consisted of two lines of defense. The structure of the eastern line of defense consisted of: two demi-bastions, one bastion, ravelin and the gate (called “Kamjanetska”). The structure of the western line includes: two demi-bastions, ravelin and the gate (called “Lvivska”). The features of the former strategic military object and stages of its development are also presented in this article. Castle reached its greatest prosperity in the beginning of XVIII century - after receiving the status of the “city”, but after arriving of Austrian Empire the fortress finally collapsed. In this article we defined that fortification system Okopy of the Holy Trinity belongs to old Dutch military engineering school. We can find using of such type of fortification in famous objects dated XVII - XVIII centuries, we are talking about Stanislaviv, Brody, Czestochowa. The most interesting of analogous objects is fortress Mariampil situated in Galician district of Ivano-Frankivsk region, which was built in the late XVIIc. by Jan Jabłonowski. The most interesting related features, that assimilated these two objects, are unique natural local conditions combined with bastion fortifications, that were used both in Okopy and in Mariampil as a major defense measures. At this stage of development, we have partially preserved fragments of two entrance gates, fully preserved fragment of guard tower, fragments of bastions and curtain walls are saved in the form of significant differences of relief. Nowadays, the former valuable historical fortress has no conservation status, for this reason, all preserved fragments are going to ruin. While our research work we made an identification of the surviving elements of the former fortress and implemented theoretical reconstruction of its original planning structure. We also presented ideas concerning protection and preservation of existing historical fragments of the fortress. Also we considered examples of successful marking, museumification and exhibiting of the former defense complexes in Europe. An important aspect of the protection, conservation and adaptation of valuable historic fortification complex involves in joining them to the existing popular tourist ways and programs. Given the fact that a former fortress Okopy of the Holy Trinity is located nearby the famous tourist attractions: the castle in Khotyn and the fortress in Kamjanets-Podilsky, for this reason the inclusion of the object to the tourism program of the region enables to promote this historical complex and helps in its protection and preservation.
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    Категорії біле та чорне в теорії та практиці архітектурної композиції
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Демків, М. В.; Черняєва, В. М.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Формулюється поняття “категорій білого та чорного” в архітектурі, виділяються композиційні схеми на основі проведеного аналізу колористики архітектурних об’єктів минулого і сьогодення. Розглядається специфіка формотворення композиційних схем білого та чорного. Особливу увагу приділено архітектурним об’єктам кінця ХХ – початку ХХІ ст. та відзначено композиційні особливості білого та чорного в них. Due to their special semantic richness, psychological, philosophical, cultural, ethical and aesthetic significance white and black have been actively used in everyday life and art for many ages. Since “white” is an achromatic color that reflects the maximum amount of light, and “black” is an achromatic color that absorbs the maximum amount of light, they are extreme expressions of the same, and both are identical. In architectural compositions they are represented by categories of white on white, black on black, white on black, and black on white. There is one more category present in practice, where white equals black - the category of white and black. We can say that in the architecture of ancient cultures and civilizations white and black could be frequently found in the wall paintings, specific architectural details could be highlighted with these colors on the facades of houses. They were presented by regular stonework on the facades of churches in the Middle Ages. In the epoch of Renaissance, a common architectural technique was a breaking a light plane with contrasting dark stripes, which compiled a geometric pattern of squares, diamonds, lines, frames, rings (Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, San Miniato al Monte, the Baptistery of Saint John in Florence, the Chapel of San Galgano in Monte Siena, Sardinia churches and temples in Tuscany). Under the influence of avant-garde art in the twentieth century white and black are becoming the expression of modernity, the integral parts of compositions in certain areas of architecture, such as minimalism, cubism, high-tech, op-art, conceptualism, they act as accents and dominants in the architectural environment of many cities. They could also be found in functionalism, constructivism and suprematism, since they best express simple spatial patterns and shapes, reveal the silhouette and volume of the building, set orientation in space. Shapes of black and white categories are presented in architecture by compositional schemes. The basic geometric shapes that form these compositional schemes are square, triangle, circle and line. Both main and derivative shapes can make the basis of compositional scheme in architectural practice. Moreover, various operations are carried out with the main shape, thus its transformation into derivative one takes place. These operations include: assimilation with another shape, change of plastics, change of proportions, change of twist, change of rhythm, transfer to the grid structure, intersection, comparison, deformation and overlaying. What is more, each shape undergoes not one, but several operations. If we consider the derivative compositional schemes, where a shape-building element is “square”, the basic operations in their creation can be assimilation, transfer to the grid structure and comparison. The rest of the compositional schemes are formed on the basis of their transformation. The most common operations on changing the basic shape of “circle” is assimilation to the line and square, transfer to the grid structure, comparison and conversion. Compositional schemes based on triangle are formed as the result of operations on assimilation to the square and the line, deformation, change of proportions and rhythms, transfer to the grid structure, and comparison. For transformation of the “line” the compositional schemes frequently use such operations as change of direction, plastics, thickness, grid structure formation, change of rhythm. With different ratio of categories of white and black in the compositions of architecture one can generate different perceptions, sense of architecture, which is one of the main tasks of an architect. Using such techniques, without resorting to the unique three-dimensional and constructive solutions, we can distinguish architectural objects from the crowd, create spatial landmarks and harmonize urban environment, make it integral, introduce statics and dynamism, optical illusions able to capture the attention, give an extraordinary, vivid, emotionally-saturated image to the building. One compositional scheme with the use of the defined categories of white and black allows achieving different images of the building. The issue of this relation remains open; its studying will make it possible to show new sides of the white and black categories in the architectural image making.
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    Європейський досвід збереження та використання постіндустріальних об’єктів
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Демків, М. В.; Готь, О. А.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Розглянуто досвід збереження архітектури промислових об’єктів міст Європи. Визначено напрямки розвитку сучасних тенденцій збереження та використання промислової архітектури. The article considers the experience in preserving the architecture of industrial facilities in the European cities. The author has established the directions to develop the modern trends of preserving and use of the industrial architecture. He has described the factors affecting the industrial heritage status. Yet it has been distinguished, that one of the key historical factors is the movement from the industrial to the informative society. That caused the decline of many industrial facilities, elements of which have some architectural and historical value. The author has also highlighted such factor as a modern thoughtless use of the industrial architecture. Such approach may lead to the destruction and loss of the valuable architectural heritage. Thus, under such circumstances, the main task of architects is to restore the functioning of postindustrial facilities by means of giving the new functions to them because such facilities are considered to have a potential to promote development of the modern cities nowadays. The author has taken four facilities for example to examine the modern experience in the use and preservation of industrial architecture in the European cities. There has been analysis of the architectural and urban characteristics of each facility. Then, he has paid considerable attention to the reconstruction and restoration methods as well as to the modern function that should be the basis of preservation and use of such buildings. The Gasholders in Vienna have firstly served to analyze them as a facility, which is an interesting example of integration of the modern function into historic industrial building. The article considers the methods applied for adaptation of the four gasholders to accommodate a complete multifunctional complex inside. This complex is located outside the city core. It is a point of attraction in the former industrial area and contributes to its development. The following example, which the author has analyzed in the article, is the Granary (built in the 19th century) on Abby Road in London. For a long time this building has been remained neglected and demanded protection from destruction. The project brought the commercial function in it. It is important that the complex has become a significant component in the social centre of the area. The article has considered the project of a multimedia library in the French town of Erstein with the population, which does not exceed 10 thousand people. The old former mill has become a significant facility in the life of the small town. It provides young people with the possibility of useful and interesting leisure activities. Such peculiarity is very important for towns where there is a trend towards the ageing of the population. The author considers the Eastern European experience on the example of the city of Łódź. Power station ES-1 is one of the largest postindustrial complexes that have acquired the new life. The power station premises occupy the most territory of the block where it is located. After reconstruction, there was created a large community center that could bring back to life the completely industrial area. Analysis of the foreign experience has proved that preserving and use of the historical industrial architecture is quite common in Europe. The architects use almost the similar methods while integrating the modern functions. In particular, there is a trend to preserve the exterior of the building and to emphasize the architecture value as well as to clean the indoor spaces. Such tendencies freely allow providing any building with the new destination. Key words: post-industrial object, preservation, using, experience.
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    Формування громадських просторів залізничних вокзальних комплексів малих та середніх міст
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Швець, Л. М.; Харківський національний університет міського господарства імені О. М. Бекетова
    Аналізуються тенденції розвитку громадських просторів у міському середовищі. Акцентується увага на тому, що простір вокзального комплексу – це платформа для взаємодії різноманітних учасників комунікаційного процесу. У непростих сучасних соціальних перетвореннях подібні платформи необхідні для обговорення будь-яких проблемних питань життя громади. Для малих та середніх міст такі простори потрібно розвивати у структурі залізничних вокзальних комплексів, які є зовнішніми брамами міста та символічно запрошують городян та гостей міста до суспільного діалогу. Окреслено особливості та параметри архітектурно-містобудівного формування залізнич- них вокзальних комплексів малих та середніх міст. In a broad sense public spaces as carriers of certain social relations reflect its community relationships, behaviors and active position and they are indicators of social development. Emotional stress in human relationships has increased at the difficult time of social changes in Ukraine. Internal migration and people mobility that has forced nature has increased. Many migrants are looking for their place in new places it is. Already known, that adaptation to the new community is a serious challenge not only for immigrants but also for city population. That is why it is important to determine the means, to neutralize negative effects of today’s upheavals and create the conditions to discuss urgent issues of the community in every city. The study found that public spaces is the territory of the city, which is the basis of human communication. In addition, the main feature of public spaces is its openness and accessibility to all citizens, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level. Public spaces become centers of attraction and society concentration in difficult periods of social development. Public spaces of RSC of small and medium-sized cities can become a public platform for discussing and finding solutions to the key tasks of the city. Variously formed public spaces may have a different impact on social processes in the city. An important feature of the modern city is its level of self-identity and active position. In small towns community is united through greater interpersonal connectivity, psychological self-identification of each resident, fewer population. Currently, decentralization reform is conducted under the European Charter of Local Self-Government, which is a part of the law of Ukraine on local government. The goal is to ensure the ability of the city to solve matters of local significance itself, using its own resources. It is about empowering local communities with greater resources and mobilizing their internal resources. Among others, these reserves are their external transport hubs - railway station complexes, which are the centers of communication and mobility. For smaller cities where external connections can exceed intraurban, an external transport hub plays a key role in the city life and metabolism. Revealed that the communication potential of RSC and urban development potential of the city are making RSC of small and medium towns a city-forming element, and its public spaces an indicator of the city. Analyzed are urban criteria of the public space by the following characteristics: limitation, structure, periodicity of visits, functionality, location and traffic. Identified are parameters and characteristics of the architecture and building formation in the core structure, buffer and peripheral zones in RSC of small and medium towns. So comfortable public spaces of RSCs have positive impact on communication processes in the city and can improve business, tourist and cultural activities and increase the value of urban territories.
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    Містобудівні та адміністративні проблеми паркування у центральній частині Львова
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Тупісь, С. П.; Любицький, Р. І.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    На основі натурних досліджень паркування у центральній частині Львова були виділені основні проблеми, серед яких – відсутність правил і умов на більшості опрацьованої території, стоянки автомобілів “під знаками”, нераціональна планувальна організація паркомісць, стихійне паркування на тротуарах та відсутність належного контролю за дотриманням паркувальних правил. Наголошується на тому, що проблеми паркінгів спричиняються планувальними недоліками та недосконалим управлінням. At first sight, the amount of parking lots in the central part of Lviv does not meet the demand, that is why most of drivers argue that it is necessary to build more parkings. Researching deeper, it becomes clear that the problem is not only in the parking amount. The disordered parkings lead to the transport and pedestrian traffic complication and sometimes even full collapse. The absence of terms and conditions at most “unofficial” on-street parkings often forces car drivers to circle in the search of the free unoccupied parking lot, creating transport network overloading. The amount of car owners in Ukraine is 220 motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants in comparing to 580 in Poland or 588 in Germany, but it is obvious that parking problems in Lviv, especially in the central part, is more urgent. These problems consist of the lack of parking management and deficient planning organization. Car is not the only transport possibility in the city – public transport, bicycle and walking are always available for everyday needs. Historic European cities realized that without balanced use of different transport types it is impossible to achieve the sustainable development. Hence, in the cities with welldeveloped and convenient transport infrastructure, using car is the “expensive pleasure”. In order to create the parking network, it is necessary for the city to have the developed street and road network. Because of the incompleteness of Lviv’s ring roads, the traffic is forced to cross the central part of the city. It is important to complete these ring roads in order to create the parking zones and parkand-ride facilities, giving the possibility to regulate parking in the central part of Lviv. The main parking type in the central part of Lviv is on-street parking. These parkings, often chaotically, are present at almost all of streets. Only few off-street parking facilities are available. During site examination, authors decided to separate existent on-street parking into 4 groups: 1. Determined parkings zones – official free and pay parkings, lots for disabled and workers/visitors; 2. Unprohibited parking places – free parkings that don’t obstruct traffic and aren’t banned by road signs “no parking” or “no stopping”; 3. Prohibited parking places – parkings under the road signs “no parking” or “no stopping”; 4. Disordered parking places – parkings on sidewalks or lawns. Additionally, the on-street parking projects, provided by Lviv city council, were analyzed. It was found, that the half of the proposed parkings for the central part of the city were free. Authors counted the potential income that city loses. Due to the large number of unplanned and disordered parkings, in the central part of Lviv arise such problems as blocking (or complication) of traffic, “double parking”, parking on sidewalks and lawns, parkings near crossroads and pedestrian crossings, dangers of pedestrians and cyclists. Any parking system cannot work without constant control of the parking rules violation. In Lviv, the police is responsible for this, but European experience shows the necessity of separate controlling service creation which will have the permit of fines issuing, even without presence of driver. Inevitability of the fine payment has to be ensured. The parking problem solution needs the integration of the planning and administrative efforts in order to develop the complex parking network of Lviv. Besides, defining of the Lviv’s central part role in the parking network is necessary and every street has to be analyzed for the possibility of “legal” parkings creation.
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    Формування громадських просторів села-курорту Шаян Закарпатської області
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Соснова, Н. С.; Липчей, І. І.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Розглянуто проблеми містобудівного розвитку села-курорту Шаян Закарпатської області. Окреслено планувальні заходи з оптимізації структури села та його громадських просторів. The development of tourism proposes new requirements for the settlements-resorts planning. Primarily, the town-planning principles of the resort settlement forming envisage the developed public space presence. The public space associated with certain activities such as fairs, trade, consumption, communication, walking, contemplation are necessary for villages-resorts. Such a space can be the central square or the main street. In the article the problems of town-planning development of Shayan village-resort of Zakarpattia region are considered. After the analysis of the urban planning conditions and plan limitations of Shayan village the main village-resort development problems were formulated. Firstly, it is the absence of public space, as such, that would comply with the resort settlement requirements. Secondly, the village, as a typical mountain settlement, has a linear structure, accordingly, space of village is formed as transit space. Length of village is 3 350 meters, and width fluctuates from 100 m to 600 meters. Such a space geometry requires formation of small local recreational public spaces inaddition to the main community center. The basic idea of both the spatial and planning structure reorganization of village is the central public space formation as market-place area by modern urban facilities. The market square formation allows to group the main central functions and objects. This urban method of central area accent will increase the village rank and village will gain the informal status of the small town. It is also offered to transfer the traffic from the central part of the village and to form the pedestrian space. The following in the project proposal is the arrangement of urban garden near the market square. Despite the fact that Shayan is surrounded by the forests, the construction of the central cultural landscape which consists of the following: park, boulevard, square, urban garden, will be the attractive element of the central public space. In summary, it must be said that today takes effect concept of the resort urbanization. The recreation needs determine the dynamics of the settlement development. The public spaces of resorts and resort settlements are the first ones that require the modernization. The regulations and recommendations development of public space use will prevent its simplified interpretation.
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    Об’єкти культури як містоутворювальний чинник у розвитку великого міста (зарубіжний досвід)
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Посацький, Б. С.; Грицак, М. М.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Розглянуто об’єкти культури у зарубіжних великих містах, побудовані у 2006–2014 рр., з погляду їх містоутворювального значення, запропоновано їхню класифікацію за багатьма ознаками. Подано основні терміни та поняття. Досліджено функціональне наповнення об’єктів культури (нових бібліотек і музеїв) та їхнє розташування у структурі міста. The cultural function in the modern post-industrial society, where the leading role played by education and science, can have a significant impact on the city or its individual territories, thus acquiring city-forming importance. Today in foreign countries, implemented, designed and is under construction many institutions and cultural objects. In addition to individual cultural buildings, acquire large distribution centers with a developed infrastructure through which cultural activity is important and even dominant in the functional filling of the urban space. The aim of the article is in classification of cultural objects in a number of features that are important from the perspective of urban planning: location in the city; linking with nodes of the town planning structure (functional,transport); linking with the landscape of the city; functional filling; the estimated number of visitors. This will allow to assess the impact of cultural complexes on urban situation and to determine their role in city life. In this article offers an overview of objects that were recently built or those that are under construction in greater cities for a better acquaintance with contemporary global trends. Based on consideration of the characteristics of new museum buildings we can note certain trends. Placing the museum in the structure of the city has no clear patterns as they can be located both in the central part and in the periphery of the city. We have examples when the museum is included in the structure of the existing historical buildings or located in the former industrial area on the outskirts of town. Museums are polyfunctional objects. In addition to storage and exhibition of cultural heritage, they offer visitors a wide range of additional functions: trade, offices, an auditorium for events, training and more. Volumetric composition of the building must motivate visitors to emphasize the individuality of the building. For example, the MAXXI Museum in Rome – the first national museum of modern art in Italy, designed by architects ZahaHadid. The need to provide leisure and cultural development of society was and is relevant,that is why the the cultural objects rapidly developing and starting to play a significant role in the life of a modern city. There is the practice of combining different functions in one building or urban complexes, contributing use these objects for various needs in any time.An example of continuous use the space of cultural objects is a Museum Quarter in Vienna – during the day in museums proceed the exhibition on the territory and various events, and in the evening – a resting place for students and youth.Based on consideration of new buildings of cultural objects – namely libraries and museums, we can note the following conclusions: 1. When designing cultural objects mortgaged an advanced feature set to provide a wide range of community needs. 2. Cultural objects are projected as new intellectual and cultural center of the city, district or quarter. 3. New cultural facilities are a dominant position in space of the city. Libraries and museums are forming on the dominant areas, streets, quarters.
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    Роль комплексного підходу до інтеграції різночасової архітектури в історичне міське середовище
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Запунна, Є. О.; Національний авіаційний університет
    Розглянуто методологічні підходи до трансформації історичного урбанізованого середовища з метою узагальнення теоретичних знань та практичного досвіду про гармонійний містобудівний простір поселень з давньою історією. Здійснено систематизацію наукових джерел за принципами усебічного висвітлення способів співіснування різночасових компонентів міського оточення; проведено огляд факторів, які впливають на гармонізацію урбанізованого середовища; проаналізовано наукові праці, у яких розглядалися питання інтеграції історичної архітектури у сучасну тканину міста та вперше узагальнено практичний досвід зарубіжних країн щодо шляхів адаптації об’єктів архітектурних пам’яток до сучасних соціокультурних потреб. We have considered the methodological approaches to the transformation of the historic urban environment in order to generalize the theoretical knowledge and practical experience of harmonious urban space settlements with a long history. The cultural heritage of past eras creates a kind of information broadcasting channel influencing people that is enhanced or diminished depending on a number of qualitative characteristics of urban space. Thus, the problem of urban transformation is to emphasize the identity of the urban landscape while maintaining stylistic and proportional balance etc. The main difficulty is that there is no a single recipe as to how to make the historic urban landscape harmonious, functional and aesthetic at the same time to give a positive psychoemotional impression on people. The article describes the systematization of scientific sources on the principles of a comprehensive coverage of the ways of coexistence of different time components in urban environment; the list of factors affecting the harmonization of urban environment; the analysis of scientific works on the integration of historic architecture in a modern city; originally generalized experience of foreign countries in adapting architectural heritage to modern social and cultural needs. We have works dealing with theoretical problems of urban aesthetics and ways to improve it; carried out development of methodological foundations and practical approaches to solving problems of urban environment transformation, monuments reconstruction in the historic urban space; the works in which the understanding of the cultural heritage protection was expanded. Another focus of the study was to analyze the research papers on the issue of adapting historical heritage to modern conditions and coexistence of different time components in historic areas of cities, preservation of religious buildings and structures as well as the means of providing them with a “new” life. We have shown a number of successful, in our opinion, projects for incorporation of historical heritage centres in contemporary urban space: Church of St. Francesc convent in Santpedor, Art Museum in Malmo, Center of community life in Gonzaga, Mill City Museum, “St. Paraskeva” church in Nessebar etc. As a result of theoretical research analysis and practical experience on how to integrate different time architecture into modern urban space, the author found that approaches to integration of different time architecture in the urban environment greatly depend on the degree of preservation of historical heritage centres. Therefore, the comprehensive approach made it possible to specify the ways to revivify the valuable historical heritage centres in the urban environment, which differ both in the degree of modifications to be made and in their perceptual characteristics. The analysis of the aforementioned theoretical research and practical experience on how to integrate the different time architecture into the modern urban space also allowed to formulate the following: 1) different as to preservation level sites shall be integrated into urban environment in different ways: restoration with possible change of functional profile shall be used for maximum preservation; reconstruction with or without any change in functional profile as well as modernization with new construction elements shall be used for half-ruined sites; conservation of the existing conditions and/or arrangement of new social and cultural space integrating the remains of the sites into the newly created architectural form shall be used for ruins; 2) the domestic architectural theory and practice need new modern methods relating to resolving the issues of coexistence of different time architectural developments and transformation of the historic environment depending on its individual characteristics.
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    До питання нормування сільської садиби
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Гнесь, Л. Б.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Розглядаються закономірності і тенденції нормування сільської садиби в Україні, залежно від соціально-економічних трансформацій суспільства, що відбувались в ХХ–ХХІ ст. Висвітлюються актуальні проблеми розпланування села в епоху ринкових відносин, обґрунтовуються пропозиції щодо оновлення містобудівних проектних норм ДБН 360-92** “Містобудування. Планування і забудова міських і сільських поселень” стосовно розпланування сельбищних територій сільських поселень. The article raises the issues of updating of urban design standards DBN 360-92** “Urban design. Town and Village Planning” in the part of residential areas planning of a Ukrainian village and a farmstead as the basic structural unit that forms these residential areas. It has been revealed that the project of new town planning standards do not consider the fact of radical changes in the social and economic structures of the country, it has not been taken into consideration that there was a transition to a market economy, that the land and administrative and territorial reforms were made, that Ukraine has joined the WTO and headed for EU integration and also other innovations. However, the planning of rural ares is still being proposed to base on outdated socialist approaches which were grounded on the ideological postulates entirely oriented towards collective forms of agriculture and which did not take a villager as a farm owner but, in fact, destroyed the sence of being an owner. Therefore, for a more complete understanding of how to develop new urban design standards it is important to track regularities of evolution of formation in Ukraine of traditional rural buildings, farmsteads, streets and also standards features of rural development and farmsteads particularly in XIX–XX centuries in different social and economic formations (Russian, Austro-Hungarian building standards and regulations in XVIII–XIX centuries, Soviet standards in the twentieth century). It was established that during the NEP, when 98 % of farms were individual homesteads, area norms (0.35 hectares) and estates parameters met the needs of a household maintaining and mainly followed the tradition of international standardization. Retrospective of socialist standardization of farmstead development during collectivization (from 30th to 80th years of XX century) in Ukraine showed a gradual reduction of a farmstead area (up to 0,12–0,08 hectares) and parameters. Such areas and parameters minimization of farmsteads made impossible doing of traditional expended household and actually resulted in the destroying of a strong Ukrainian owner, which was a goal of socialist ideology, indeed. Then, during the next two or three generations Ukrainian village lost its identity as a formation which combined functions for dwelling and agricultural production. In fact, nowadays a village is transformed into a cottage sleeping settlement, in which features of agricultural production no more exist or they are within the limits of old generation enthusiasm. This situation leads to breaking of traditions and farming culture, lack of work in countryside, which in its turn leads to alcoholism, migration of young people to cities and finaly – to further degradation of a village. In conclusions there are amendments to the new design standards “Urban design. Town and Village Planning” which would encourage designers to create such planning solution that would provide two main functions in a rural settlement – dwelling and agricultural production (and not only agricultural), and also stimulate creation and development of extended services like social and consumer services, recreation, farm tourism which could be formed on the basis of self-organization of rural communities and business activity of local people.
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    Концепція гуманізації архітектурно-містобудівної інфраструктури найзначніших міст в Україні
    (Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2016) Вотінов, М. А.; Харківський національний університет міського господарства ім. О. М. Бекетова
    Дано визначення поняттю “архітектурно-містобудівна інфраструктура”. Виявлено її основні ієрархічні компоненти з метою комплексного вдосконалення середовища життєдіяльності з урахуванням потреб людини. Архітектурно-містобудівна інфраструктура розглядається як система відкритих архітектурних просторів з певним просторовим наповненням відповідно до її типологічних характеристик. This article first defines the concept of “architectural and urban infrastructure”. Hierarchical found its main components with the aim of improving the living environment integrated with the needs of man. Architectural and urban infrastructure is seen as a system of open architectural spaces with a specific spatial content according to its typological characteristics. At the end of the XX century, the International Commission on Environment and Development, the United Nations adopted a concept of “sustainable development”, which contained a new model of humanistic oriented promotion of the human community as a mode of co-evolution (co-evolution) with nature. But urban development continues to be chaotic, with the deterioration of the environment, so the sustainable development concept of urban environmental considerations becomes paramount. They are directly connected with the need to restructure the urban environment. At present, the urban environment should be appropriate orientation of its architectural and urban planning infrastructure on the ideals of humanism. The ideas of humanism put a man in a priority position as core values. Under the humanization concept of the urban environment with the architectural and urban planning infrastructure refers to the development of principles, methods, scientific advice and practical techniques that can provide qualitative improvement of living environment, taking into account the spatial needs of the person. This concept is especially important for Ukraine. In most cities of Ukraine has accumulated a number of significant critical issues that hamper the normal development and functioning of the urban environment with the architectural and urban development infrastructure. The prospects of sustainable development in Ukraine related to the restructuring of the architectural and urban development infrastructure of the urban environment, especially in major and largest cities.
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    Формування міського культурного ландшафту (на прикладі міст Західної України на зламі ХХ–ХХІ ст.)
    (2016) Посацький, Б. С.; Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
    Описано основні етапи формування міського культурного ландшафту міст західноукраїнського регіону впродовж другої половини ХХ – початку ХХІ ст. Впродовж цього періоду можна виділити три характерні періоди, пов’язані із загальними напрямками розвитку архітектури і містобудування: І – 1945–1955, освоєння класичної спадщини у містобудуванні і архітектурі; ІІ – 1956–1990, спрощення містобудівних і архітектурних форм, вузькоутилітарне розуміння ландшафту; ІІІ – 1991 – початок ХХІ ст., плюралізм просторових форм, ущільнення забудови, зменшення природних просторів у містах. Time factor is associated with the formation of the urban landscape. Also it is directed not only to the past but to the future, because the prospect of development should always be taken into consideration in today's decision making process. Aesthetics of urban space clearly reflects the current state of the overall economic development of the city, and in a more general sense of the country as a whole. Formation of the urban cultural landscape in towns of the western region of Ukraine during the second half of ХХ century and at the beginning ofХХІcentury was in line with general trends of architecture and urban planning in Ukraine. During the above mentioned period there were three characteristic periods related to the general trends of architecture and urban planning: 1 – 1945–1955, the development of the classical heritage in urban planning and architecture. In the post-war decade in Soviet architecture there was the defining aspiration to create a complete urban ensembles in classicforms, where the organic component of such ensembles were natural spaces – green areas and elements of water. In Ternopil, Lutsk, Rivne post-war reconstruction and rehabilitat on, taking into account existing spatial situation, led to the formation of new city landscape, which was close to the historical one, especially in the centers of these cities. Instead, in Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Uzhhorod, Chernivtsithe existing cultural heritage led to the preservation of historical urban landscape. 2 – 1956–1990, simplification of urban and architectural forms, narrowly utilitarian understanding of the landscape. This period is characterized by large volumes of industrial and multi-residential building in all regional centers of the Western region. There was a kind of division of the urban landscape into two components in large cities: a –landscape of historic center with architecture and landscape monuments; b – new industrial landscape areas and mass-rise residential buildings. This situation was in Lviv, Ivano- Frankivsk, Lutsk, Rivne, Ternopil, Uzhgorod, Chernivtsi, Drohobych. In some small towns historic urban landscapes have been supplemented with new objects, as was in Gorodok, Zolochiv, Mostys'ka, Sambir, Sokal, Hust.Instead in other towns historic landscapes have been affected by new small-scale buildings, for example in Busk, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Galych, Brody, Ostroh, Radekhiv, Rava-Ruska, Skole. 3 – 1991 – the beginning of XXI century, pluralism of spatial forms, urban compaction, reducing of natural areas in towns. Changes the political system and the introduction of market relations in the economy of Ukraine led to radical changes in urban planning. The state and local authorities as a whole were not ready to harmonize the general public interests with those of many private investors. This led to chaotic different-story building, distortions of cultural urban landscape in many cities in the region and a noticeable reduction of green areas of common use. Apart these features the role of the elements of advertises and urban design has significantly increased in the urban landscape.