Практика функціонування, проблеми та перспективи нормування сільських вулиць

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Видавництво Львівської політехніки


На основі здійснених автором у 2016 р. натурних досліджень кварталів садибної забудови, запроектованих і реалізованих у 60-90-х роках ХХ ст. в селах Київської, Львівської, Хмельницької областей, проаналізовано практику нецільового вико¬ристання мешканцями просторів сільських вулиць з різними типовими профілями. Подано рекомендації стосовно ощадного використання територіальних та будівельних ресурсів під час проектування вулиць в сільській садибній забудові без шкоди для їх функціональних та естетичних якостей.
On the basis of the author’s 2016 field researches of farmsteads development, which were designed and implemented in 60-90 years of the 20th century in villages of Kyiv, Lviv, Khmelnytsky regions, it is analyzed the practice of improper use of streets of rural settlements, with different standard sections, by their residents. It was found that the most common parameters of farmsteads (15-10 m width, area 0,08-0,11ha) do not satisfy the needs of individual peasants, engaged in agricultural production, for proper functioning of the farmsteads. The lack of space or small width of farmsteads peasants compensate by using of spacial reserves of rural streets, such as zones between the roadway and the fences of farmsteads (roadsides, rainwater ditches, sidewalks, rows of trees or shrubs, lawns). When the width of the zone is wide enough, the owners of farmsteads use it for various functions: parking of agricultural machinery and implements, for storage of construction materials, fuel, agricultural production, as a volary and/or an aviary for livestock or poultry, or sometimes move the fencing boundaries of their farmsteads 1-4 m towards the roadway, etc. All these examples of spontaneous reconstruction in town planning, prove that planning decisions for development of residential areas of rural settlements do not consider the specifics of the rural lifestyle and needs of management. As a result, it leads to significant changes in the planning of the streets by the residents. Analysing the results of the researches one can notice that there is hidden and unconscious conflict between designers and consumers of their design practice. Ignoring by designers such a phenomenon as spontaneous reconstruction inevitably leads to the use of surplus space of rural streets unefficiently and to loss of their aesthetics. At the same time the researches show that such unauthorized actions of residents, as reducing the width of rural streets and variety of functional use of street’s side zones, are much less common or absent altogether in cases where: - the width of the streets do not exceed 9.10 m; - the width of farmsteads along the front side of a street was more than 30 meters each and the area of each farmstead was more than 0.15 hectares - these parameters allow to organize a spacious homestead yard; - or when the back of the farmsteads provides utility passage. The author gives some recommendations for reasonable using of local and architectural resources when designing streets of rural farmsteads - reducing the width of the rural streets to 8.10 m (at 40-75 % comparing to the recommended profiles) without causing any harm to functional and aesthetic qualities. Spare 1-3 meters of width on each side of the street it is recommended to attach to the farmsteads where the owners can use them more efficiently



сільські вулиці, стихійна реконструкція сільських вулиць, ширина вулиць, сельбищні території сільських поселень, rural streets, spontaneous reconstruction of rural streets, street’s width, residential areas of rural settlements


Гнесь Л. Б. Практика функціонування, проблеми та перспективи нормування сільських вулиць / Л. Б. Гнесь // Вісник Національного університету “Львівська політехніка”. Серія: Архітектура. — Львів : Видавництво Львівської політехніки, 2018. — № 893. — С. 148–158. — (Містобудування).



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