Влияние образов архитектурного наследия Вавилона на формирование мировой архитектуры

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2016

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Одесская государственная академия строительства и архитектуры

Abstract

Дисертація присвячена виявленню принципів формування архітектурної образності Вавилона як функції його історичної спадщини та розкриттю особливостей генези провідного архітектурного образу Вавилона, що увійшов у світову культуру як образ «Вавилонської вежі». Сформульовані положення про своєрідність автентичної архітектури Іраку як функції його історичного розвитку; виявлені аспекти історичної спадщини як основи його архітектурної образності; виявлені і сформульовані провідні автентичні архітектурні образи Вавилона, їх роль і трансформації в архітектурній образності Європи і світу. Диссертация посвящена выявлению принципов формирования архитектурной образности Вавилона как функции его исторического наследия и раскрытию особенностей генезиса ведущего архитектурного образа Вавилона, вошедшего в мировую культуру как образ «Вавилонской башни». Сформулированы положения о своеобразии аутентичной архитектуры Ирака как функции его исторического развития; выявлены аспекты исторического наследия как основы его архитектурной образности; выявлены и сформулированы ведущие аутентичные архитектурные образы Вавилона, их роль и трансформации в архитектурной образности Европы и мира. Dissertation is dedicated to the identification of principles of the Babylon’s architectural image formation in the meaning of its historical heritage and is also dedicated to the Genesis particularities of Babylon’s leading architectural image uncover, known in world’s culture as “The Tower of Babylon”. The identified principles of the Babylon’s architectural imagery formation in the meaning of its historical heritage are: • the interdependence of irrigation system and the state, caused by landscape and climatical particularities; • the construction process’s particularities (building materials and technologies, structure construction traditions); • repeatedly renovation and rebuilding of the leading structures with interaction of local and related cultures; • mythological traditions and rituals of power’s legitimisation, architecturally expressed; • architectural strength and laconism, which almost “literally” express traditional ideas and impress the spectators; • Sumer-Akkadian culture’s high authority, architecturally fixed as prototype of further interpretation without fundamental distortion. The Genesis particularities of Babylon’s leading architectural image, known in world’s culture as “The Tower of Babylon” are:• the transition from architectural to the verbal image in the late hellenistic period. The overthrow of pagan Babylon (endless luxury and power) as an unacceptable idea for arising christian culture; • revival of the interest to the Babylon’s Tower’s architectural image, and the city of Babylon: the transition from verbal to the architectural image; • the appearance of the numerous free interpretations in the different culture’s demonstrations on the architectural base. Transformation of Babylon’s image and its architectural dominant analysed through gradual change of the attitude to the architectural objects. Babylon is a unique case, when this chain had cyclic continuation: from the cultural image to the architectural image and architectural object (what was the motivation of the architectural research). It is determined, that architectural forms of Babylon’s leading objects during all the periods were saving their traditional architectural features, basic principles of Sumer-Akkadian architecture. The earliest babylon ziggurat’s (stepped brick tower with spiral stepped rise, without interior) specific Sumerian architecture has become significant to the following artists and almost hasn't changed during the centuries. The most important dates of architectural image’s appearance of Etemenanka’s ziggurat was the king’s Hamurapy period, who had rebuilt ziggurat again, and Asargaddon’s and his son’s times. when Etemenanka’s ziggurat was rebuilt in Assyrian and babylonian traditions by Aradach-Cheshu. The construction of last ziggurat’s version was finished in new babylonian period by II Navuchodonosor (605-562 BC). This construction became a confirmation of high Babylon’s status and state’s power of that period. Ziggurat as leading architectural and ideological dominant of the city, despite of numerous rebuilding and changes, has become a linking element, holding a common topic from Sumerian up to Hellenistic period. Thesises about unique authentic Iraq’s architecture has been formulated; aspects of historical heritage has been identified as the base of its architectural imagery; leading authentic Babylon’s architectural images has been formulated and identified, their and transformation in European and world’s architectural imagery. The domination of Babylon’s image and “The Tower of Babylon” determined the borders of cultural space, in which this image works as global cultural space. The research notes that in contemporary cultural space two dipolar architectural images work. The first one is connected with the architectural image, that second one - with is textual interpretation. Babylon is a valuable Iraq’s cultural object, which is also has the world’s importance and need long-lasting research, reconstruction and renovation works. Numerous destractions and reconstructions happened with this valuable monument of world’s culture, which added new features to its architectural appearance, but it always saved its original content. This makes this renovation work’s problem a pertinent in Babylon, transfers it from the regional level to the world’s.

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Keywords

образ, Вавилон, архітектурно-просторове середовище, композиція, традиції, культура, історична спадщина, образ, Вавилон, архитектурно-пространственная среда, композиция, традиции, культура, историческое наследие, image, Babylon, architectural and spatial environment, composition, traditions, culture, historical heritage

Citation

Аль-Ода Насир Али А. Влияние образов архитектурного наследия Вавилона на формирование мировой архитектуры : диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата архитектуры : 18.00.01 – теория архитектуры, реставрации памятников архитектуры / Аль-Ода Насир Али Абдухуссейн ; Министерство образования и науки Украины ; Одесская государственная академия строительства и архитектуры. – Одесса, 2016. – 180 с. – Библиография: с. 170–178 (142 названия).